Presentation on theme: "Manifest Destiny Chapter 17 EU: To what extent did the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflect the sectional interests of New Englanders,"— Presentation transcript:
1ManifestDestinyChapter 17 EU: To what extent did the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflect the sectional interests of New Englanders, westerners, and southerners in the period from 1845 to 1855? (2005 FRQ)
2Events, Causes and Effects of Mexican War! Directions: Answer the following questions based on the 16 documents provided. You may work with A PARTNER, but make notes on your own paper. Our ultimate goal is to connect the acquisition of Texas and California to other events leading up to the Civil War.Questions:What were the arguments for/against Mexican War?Did Polk provoke the war?What were the goals of the U.S. gov’t in the war?Why did so many people oppose the war?
4Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860 New intellectual and religious movements.Social reforms.Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America.Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization.Increase in federal power Marshall Ct. decisions.Increase in American nationalism.Further westward expansion.
5Causes of Expansion Economic Factors New Acquisitions Lack of good landPanic of 1837New AcquisitionsTexasCaliforniaOregon
6“Manifest Destiny”First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federaltive development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.
9Texas Declaration of Independence 1823 Land grants – 300 familiesIssues with MexicoSlavery, immigration,local rights.1835 – Santa Anna takes away local control, sends army.1836 – Declare independence – Sam Houston C.I.C.
10The Republic of TexasApril 21, 1836 – Battle of San Jacinto S.A. capturedTreaty – Withdraw troops, Rio Grande = Border1837 – Jackson rec. RepublicTexas petitions for annexation.
11General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo The Battle of the AlamoGeneral Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
14Birth of the Whigs!Platform: activist government, American System, reformersElection of 1836 – Van Buren V. Wm. H. HarrisonProblems: Panic, Annexation of TX, Canada, “second-class man”
15Election of 1840 Van Buren V. Harrison (Tippecanoe & Tyler Too!) Issueless and enemy-lessLog Cabins and Hard Cider!Whig Goals: American SystemWebster – Sec of StateClay – Senate Majority LeaderHarrison dies after 40 days – Tyler “The Accidental President” – Thrown out of Whig Party (Bank, tariff veto)
16Election of 1844 James Polk V Henry Clay Issues: Oregon – “54 40’ or Fight”TexasPres. Tyler takes Polk’s election as a mandate and annexes TX in 1845 by joint resolution (simple majority) 28th STATE!Liberty Party- Drew votes away fromHenry Clay, allowedPolk to win
17Texas (the beast): I fear I cannot carry you into the Presidential Chair. Polk: Dear Texas, I knew you cannot—I wish I had rode some other horse but it is too late to repent.
18Goals of Polk’s Administration Lower the tariff – Walker Tariff 1846Resolve the Oregon boundary dispute – 49th parallelRestore the independent treasury (Bank)Acquire California – Wanted to buy, but relationship strained due to TX.
19Overland Immigration to the West Between 1840 and 1860, more than 250,000 people made the trek westward.
20The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight! By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land.The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in (Anglo-American Convention)
25The Bear Flag RepublicThe Revolt June 14, 1845John C. Frémont
26The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border.Would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt. ($3 million)US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000.US would pay for California - $25 millionJohn Slidell
27Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA) Wilmot Proviso, 1846Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted.Passed by House, defeated in SenateCongr. David Wilmot (D-PA)
29General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto – ordered into “neutral territory”April 25-May 8, 1846 – Battle “American blood upon American Soil.”May 9 – Polk asks for WarUnpaid DamagesSlidell’s rejectionAbraham Lincoln’s “Spot Resolutions”“Old Rough and Ready”
30The Bombardment of Vera Cruz Winfield Scott – Sept. 1847
31General Scott Enters Mexico City “Old Fuss and Feathers”
32Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator
33Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River.Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. (1/2 territory)U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000).
34Results of the Mexican War? Positives: Negatives:Land > LA Purchase - Mexico & Latin America angryManifest Destiny! ,000 lives and $100 millionWorldwide respect - Issue of slaveryImproved military - “Colossus of the North”Wilmot Proviso!
36Free Soil Party WHY? Free Soil! Free Speech! Free Labor! Free Men! “Barnburners” – discontented northern Democrats.Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties.Opposition to the extension of slavery in the new territories!
38Manifest DestinyChapter 17 EU: To what extent did the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflect the sectional interests of New Englanders, westerners, and southerners in the period from 1845 to 1855? (2005 FRQ)Brainstorming: What facts can you provide to answer the above question?