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Chapter 17 EU: To what extent did the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflect the sectional interests of New Englanders, westerners, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 EU: To what extent did the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflect the sectional interests of New Englanders, westerners, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 EU: To what extent did the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflect the sectional interests of New Englanders, westerners, and southerners in the period from 1845 to 1855? (2005 FRQ)

2 Events, Causes and Effects of Mexican War! Directions: Answer the following questions based on the 16 documents provided. You may work with A PARTNER, but make notes on your own paper. Our ultimate goal is to connect the acquisition of Texas and California to other events leading up to the Civil War. Questions: 1.What were the arguments for/against Mexican War? 2.Did Polk provoke the war? 3.What were the goals of the U.S. gov’t in the war? 4.Why did so many people oppose the war?

3 U.S. Foreign Policy  Washington’s Farewell Address  Jefferson’s Tripoli War  Monroe Doctrine

4 Trends in Antebellum America: New intellectual and religious movements. 2.Social reforms. 3.Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America. 4.Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization. 5.Increase in federal power  Marshall Ct. decisions. 6.Increase in American nationalism. 7.Further westward expansion. 1.New intellectual and religious movements. 2.Social reforms. 3.Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America. 4.Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization. 5.Increase in federal power  Marshall Ct. decisions. 6.Increase in American nationalism. 7.Further westward expansion.

5 Causes of Expansion  Economic Factors Lack of good land Panic of 1837  New Acquisitions Texas California Oregon

6 “Manifest Destiny”  First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in  ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federaltive development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."  A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.

7 “American Progress” by John Gast, 1872

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9 Texas Declaration of Independence 1823 Land grants – 300 families Issues with Mexico Slavery, immigration, local rights – Santa Anna takes away local control, sends army – Declare independence – Sam Houston C.I.C.

10 The Republic of Texas April 21, 1836 – Battle of San Jacinto S.A. captured Treaty – Withdraw troops, Rio Grande = Border 1837 – Jackson rec. Republic Texas petitions for annexation.

11 The Battle of the Alamo General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo

12 Davey Crockett’s Last Stand

13 Remember the Alamo!

14 Birth of the Whigs!  Platform: activist government, American System, reformers  Election of 1836 – Van Buren V. Wm. H. Harrison Problems: Panic, Annexation of TX, Canada, “second-class man”

15 Election of 1840  Van Buren V. Harrison (Tippecanoe & Tyler Too!) Issueless and enemy-less Log Cabins and Hard Cider! Whig Goals: American System Webster – Sec of State Clay – Senate Majority Leader Harrison dies after 40 days – Tyler “The Accidental President” – Thrown out of Whig Party (Bank, tariff veto)

16 Election of 1844 James Polk V Henry Clay Issues: Oregon – “54 40’ or Fight” Texas Liberty Party- Drew votes away from Henry Clay, allowed Polk to win Pres. Tyler takes Polk’s election as a mandate and annexes TX in 1845 by joint resolution (simple majority) 28 th STATE!

17 Texas (the beast): I fear I cannot carry you into the Presidential Chair. Polk: Dear Texas, I knew you cannot—I wish I had rode some other horse but it is too late to repent.

18 1.Lower the tariff – Walker Tariff Resolve the Oregon boundary dispute – 49 th parallel 3.Restore the independent treasury (Bank) 4.Acquire California – Wanted to buy, but relationship strained due to TX. Goals of Polk’s Administration

19 Overland Immigration to the West  Between 1840 and 1860, more than 250,000 people made the trek westward.

20 The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight!  By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land.  The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in (Anglo-American Convention)

21 The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869

22 Trails Westward

23 The Doomed Donner Party April, 1846 – April, 1847

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25 The Bear Flag Republic John C. Frémont The Revolt  June 14, 1845

26 The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845  Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border.  Would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt. ($3 million)  US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000.  US would pay for California - $25 million  Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border.  Would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt. ($3 million)  US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000.  US would pay for California - $25 million John Slidell

27 Wilmot Proviso, 1846 Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA) Passed by House, defeated in Senate

28 The Mexican War ( )

29 General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto “ Old Rough and Ready” – ordered into “neutral territory” April 25-May 8, 1846 – Battle “American blood upon American Soil.” May 9 – Polk asks for War Unpaid Damages Slidell’s rejection Abraham Lincoln’s “Spot Resolutions”

30 The Bombardment of Vera Cruz Winfield Scott – Sept. 1847

31 General Scott Enters Mexico City “Old Fuss and Feathers”

32 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator

33 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848  Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River.  Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. (1/2 territory)  U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000).  Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River.  Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. (1/2 territory)  U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000). The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!

34 Results of the Mexican War? Positives:Negatives: Land > LA Purchase- Mexico & Latin America angry Manifest Destiny!- 13,000 lives and $100 million Worldwide respect- Issue of slavery Improved military- “Colossus of the North” Wilmot Proviso!

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36 Free Soil Party Free Soil! Free Speech! Free Labor! Free Men!  “Barnburners” – discontented northern Democrats.  Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties.  Opposition to the extension of slavery in the new territories!  “Barnburners” – discontented northern Democrats.  Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties.  Opposition to the extension of slavery in the new territories! WHY?

37 The 1848 Presidential Election Results √

38 Chapter 17 EU: To what extent did the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflect the sectional interests of New Englanders, westerners, and southerners in the period from 1845 to 1855? (2005 FRQ) Brainstorming: What facts can you provide to answer the above question?


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