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Greece and Rome GPS Unit 1 2000 B. C. –A.D. 700 SSWH3.

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Presentation on theme: "Greece and Rome GPS Unit 1 2000 B. C. –A.D. 700 SSWH3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greece and Rome GPS Unit 1 2000 B. C. –A.D. 700 SSWH3

2 I. Government in Greece Political Units: Political Structures
Polis: city-state of ancient Greece; fundamental political unit Acropolis: fortified hilltop where citizens gather and discuss city government Political Structures Monarchy: rule by a single person Aristocracy: gov’t ruled by a small group of families Oligarchy: gov’t ruled by a few powerful people Tyrants: leaders for the interest of ordinary people

3 II. Athens and Sparta Athens: Attica Peninsula
Democracy: rule by the people Wealthy boys only ones educated


5 Athens and Sparta (cont’d)
Southern Greece/Gulf of Corinth Helots Military state Boys and Girls trained

6 Athens and Sparta Athens was larger
Education for wealthy boys only- liberal arts Society was based on trade and open to outsiders Many of the Greek artistic and intellectual achievements came out of Athens Women were subordinate and kept out of public Sparta was small with a huge slave population called helots All boys and girls educated- women considered equals Military education Farming economy Closed society- very paranoid- did not like outsiders No wall around city

7 Athens and Sparta (cont’d)
Persian Wars Greece vs. Persia at Ionia; coast of Anatolia 10,000 Greeks (Athenians) vs. 25,000 Persians Athenians arranged in Phalanx: ea. Soldier stood side by side with spear and shield Athenians win Pheidippides runs from Marathon to Athens


9 Second War: Land and Sea Invasions by Xerxes
To revenge his father’s shame, Xerxes in 480 BCE launched a massive land and sea invasion of Greece.(250,000 soldiers) Fought three major engagements- Thermopylae (Stand of the 300 Spartans), Salamis (naval battle near Athens), and Platae (Sparta’s revenge). Invasion failed and Xerxes lost most of his army.

10 Battle of Thermopylae. Modern memorial to Leonidas and the 300.

11 Legacy of Persian Wars Greece now considered a Mediterranean power. Athens and Sparta become the dominant city states. Athens enters a “Golden Age” of intellectual and artistic achievements. Jealously over Athenian dominance of Delian League led to 25 years of civil warfare in Greece. Athens vs. Sparta (Peloponnesian Wars) Leaves Greece open to foreign invasion- Macedonia under King Philip invades and unites Greek city-states under one king.

12 III. Greek Art Golden Age: growth of intellectual and artistic learning Direct Democracy: citizens rule directly (not through representatives) Parthenon Classical Art: portrays ideal beauty; serenity, gracefulness




16 Greek Art (cont’d) Myths: traditional stories about Greek gods Drama:
Tragedy: serious drama with a tragic flaw Comedy: humorous Homer: greatest storyteller of Greece The Iliad The Odyssey Myths: traditional stories about Greek gods

17 IV. Philosophers Philosophers: “lovers of wisdom” ; determined to seek truth wherever they were led

18 Philosophers (cont’d)
Socrates believed absolute standards did exist for truth and justice “The unexamined life is not worth living” Brought to trial for “corrupting the youth of Athens” Socratic Method Ideas were innate Mind continued to exist after death

19 Philosophers (cont’d)
Plato Student of Socrates The Republic Ideas innate

20 Philosophers (cont’d)
Aristotle Applied method of problem solving to psychology, physics, and biology (scientific method) Mind and body separate Ideas result of experience

21 V. Alexander the Great Peloponnesian War weakened Greek city-states
Philip II becomes king Killed at wedding Alexander becomes king (20 yrs old) Student of Aristotle Expands the empire: Persia, Egypt (Alexandria), Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, Arabia Dies of Malaria (32 yrs old)

22 Alexander (cont’d) Alexander the Great’s Legacy
3 different Greeks gain control of the Empire Antigonous of Macedonia Ptolemy seizes Egypt Seleucus took Old Persian Empire Adopts Persian customs Hellenistic culture emerges


24 VI. The Olympic Games and Hellenistic Culture
Ancient Olympics Honored Zeus In Olympia Chariot races, boxing, javelin, discus , etc. Statues of cheaters

25 Olympics cont’d Modern Olympics In Athens 1896 Many more sports

26 Hellenistic Culture (cont’d)
Greek (Hellenic) blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences Scholars Provided most scientific knowledge Euclid: mathematician (geometry) Archimedes: pi, lever, screw, and pulley Art Colossus of Rhodes sculpture

27 I. Origins of Rome Founded in 753 by Romulus and Remus (legend)
Tiber River near Italian Peninsula; midpoint of the Med. Sea Rolling hills Fertile soil 3 Groups inhabited the region ( BC) Latins Greeks (these 3 were 1st settlers) Etruscans


29 Rome (cont) b/w 750 and 600 BC the Greeks est. colonies; brought all of Italy into closer contact with the Greek civ. Etruscans strongly influenced Roman civ. Writing and architecture (esp. arch)

30 II. Roman Government Republic: citizens vote for leaders
Patricians: wealthy landowners Plebeians: common farmers, artisans, and merchants (majority) Barred by law from holding imp. Govt. positions Eventually form tribunes: protected the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of patrician officials Created Twelve Tables: written law code (protected from patrician officials interpretations)

31 Roman Gov’t (cont’d) Parts of Roman Republic:
Consuls: commanded army; directed government (similar to President of U.S.) Senate: legislative assembly Dictator: ruled in time of crisis (6 months) Legions: large military units

32 III. Rome Spreads its Power
Punic Wars Rome vs. Carthage (North Africa) 3 separate wars 1st: ( BCE) Carthage captured part of Sicily; Rome came to help out. Also for glory and plunder Fought mostly at sea for some years Carthage was the most successful, notedly under the leadership of Hamilcar, but with the battle at the Aegates Islands in 241, the Carthagians were beaten so painfully that they requested peace. This agreement involved leaving Sicily and paying a huge indemnity. Rome now controlled Sicily.


34 2nd: ( BCE) It was the Carthagians bitterness over both the agreement from the first war, and the Roman expansion following the next years (Corsica and Sardinia was taken from Carthage in 237), that brought it on. Hannibal: Carthage general; mastermind of war Won several early battles but no decisive ones The Romans used a tactic of delaying, and they had strong hold on the communications over both land and sea. This would eventually result in declining morals in Hannibals troops In 204 the Roman sunder the leadership of Scipio invaded Ifriqiya (today's Tunisia), and despite strong resistance, a peace was almost arranged in 203, when Hannibal returned. Hannibal was beaten in Zama (near today's Maktar, Tunisia) in 202. Peace was signed in 201. All claims on Spain were given up, and the Punic fleet was reduced to ten ships.

35 3rd: ( BCE) The third war was entirely provoked by the Romans. After the second defeat, Carthage managed once again to return to much of its former glory, the economy prospered, and the fleet increased. But the memory of the former Punic wars was strong in Rome; many hated the Carthaginians especially because there seemed to be nothing that could force them on their knees. Many Romans wanted to gain glory, and no enemy was more attractive than Carthage, even if the city state now longer aspired to become an empire. Masinissa deliberately provoked Carthage, and in 149 Carthage attacked him. Rome came to aid for their ally, through declaring war on Carthage. At first a peace was agreed upon, but then Rome increased their demands, decreeing a total abandonment of the city. Facing these claims, the Carthaginians returned to fighting, and soon Carthage fell under what would become a 3 year long siege. When the Romans finally breached the walls, Scipio Aemilianus took the city by storm. One week of fighting inside the city followed, then the city was burned, and the locals were either executed or sold into slavery.

36 IV. The Roman Empire Empire emerges after Punic Wars; republic becomes unstable Economic Turmoil Rich live on big estates (with lots of slaves) Small farmers had difficulty competing Civil War: Tribunes tried for reforms but made enemies with senators Generals start to gain power (recruiting soldiers turned farmers—promising them land) and take over by force

37 Roman Empire (cont’d) Julius Caesar gains control
60 BCE Caesar joined with Crassus and Pompey; ruled as a triumvirate (group of three) for 10 yrs. Elected consul (ruled for 1 yr) Excellent military leader Appointed himself governor of Gaul (France)—becomes very popular 50 BCE he defies senate; they ordered him to disband his legions and return home. 49 BCE Crossed Rubicon River conquers Greece, Asia, Spain, Egypt 46 BCE returned to Rome, had support of army and masses and was appointed Dictator 44 BCE appointed dictator for life

38 The Roman Empire (cont’d)
Governed as an absolute ruler Reforms: Roman citizenship to people in the provinces; expanded the senate; built new public buildings that created new jobs for the poor Some senators feared losing their influence; some considered him a tyrant Caesar is killed by senators March 15, 44 BCE

39 The Roman Empire (cont’d)
Beginning of the Empire More civil war; Roman Republic destroyed Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus Ruled for 10 yrs Jealousy and violence Lepidus retires, Octavian and Mark Antony rivals 3. Octavian rules; becomes Augustus Caesar Pax Romana (207 years) After Augustus’ death, empire remained stable

40 V. Society and Culture Agriculture Slaves and Captivity
Most important industry 90% involved in farming Complex roads linked the empire Slaves and Captivity Used slaves more than any other civilization Conquered peoples brought back to Rome Worked both city and farm Some forced to be gladiators Occasional rebellions (none successful)

41 Society and Culture (cont’d)
Gods and Goddesses Early Romans worshiped powerful, divine spirits Government and religion linked; private and public rituals expected; worship of emperor was important as well Majority of people were poor Government supported people Gladiator games Colosseum one of greatest structure ever built; held 50,000 people


43 Society and Culture (cont’d)
Roman Art Greco-Roman: classical civilization Rome had conquered Greece and was influenced by their culture One of greatest legacies to the world Realism Augustus had great artistic achievement Bas-relief; told stories Mosaics; found in wealthy homes Pompeii was best example; site of Vesuvius eruption which preserved many buildings and artworks

44 Society and Culture (cont’d)
Legacy Latin language; official language of Roman Catholic Church into 20th century Aqueducts; brought water to cities Architecture; inspired public buildings Roman Roads; made of stone, concrete, and sand. Lasted until Middle ages Laws; most lasting and widespread Fair and equal to all people Influenced by philosophers Equal treatment under law Innocent until proven guilty

45 VII. Fall of the Roman Empire
Rome’s economy weakens Inflation Overworked soil Military in disarray Rome splits (empire no more) West: remains Rome; Latin speaking Huns responsible for German invasions in West (Attila) East: Byzantine Empire; Greek speaking Constantine secures, moves capitol (Constantinople) Flourishes; preserves Greek and Roman culture

46 VI. Christianity Spreads
Jesus The Messiah Contained many ideas from Judaism Stressed importance of people’s love for God and each other Promised salvation for those who repented their sins Crucified for defying the Roman government Spread of Christianity Roads make is easy Paul

47 Christianity Spreads Constantine Christian Church
Ends persecution (occurred b/c people didn’t worship Roman gods—thousands were killed, exiled, or imprisoned) Nicene Creed: basic beliefs of church Christian Church Peter “rock” on which the church will be built First Pope—head of the Christian Church Bishops next Priests Augustine: influential writer/bishop helped define Church teachings

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