Presentation on theme: "Greece and Rome GPS Unit 1 2000 B. C. –A.D. 700 SSWH3."— Presentation transcript:
1 Greece and RomeGPS Unit 12000 B. C. –A.D. 700SSWH3
2 I. Government in Greece Political Units: Political Structures Polis: city-state of ancient Greece; fundamental political unitAcropolis: fortified hilltop where citizens gather and discuss city governmentPolitical StructuresMonarchy: rule by a single personAristocracy: gov’t ruled by a small group of familiesOligarchy: gov’t ruled by a few powerful peopleTyrants: leaders for the interest of ordinary people
3 II. Athens and Sparta Athens: Attica Peninsula Democracy: rule by the peopleWealthy boys only ones educated
5 Athens and Sparta (cont’d) Southern Greece/Gulf of CorinthHelotsMilitary stateBoys and Girls trained
6 Athens and Sparta Athens was larger Education for wealthy boys only- liberal artsSociety was based on trade and open to outsidersMany of the Greek artistic and intellectual achievements came out of AthensWomen were subordinate and kept out of publicSparta was small with a huge slave population called helotsAll boys and girls educated- women considered equalsMilitary educationFarming economyClosed society- very paranoid- did not like outsidersNo wall around city
7 Athens and Sparta (cont’d) Persian WarsGreece vs. Persia at Ionia; coast of Anatolia10,000 Greeks (Athenians) vs. 25,000 PersiansAthenians arranged in Phalanx: ea. Soldier stood side by side with spear and shieldAthenians winPheidippides runs from Marathon to Athens
9 Second War: Land and Sea Invasions by Xerxes To revenge his father’s shame, Xerxes in 480 BCE launched a massive land and sea invasion of Greece.(250,000 soldiers)Fought three major engagements- Thermopylae (Stand of the 300 Spartans), Salamis (naval battle near Athens), and Platae (Sparta’s revenge).Invasion failed and Xerxes lost most of his army.
10 Battle of Thermopylae. Modern memorial to Leonidas and the 300.
11 Legacy of Persian WarsGreece now considered a Mediterranean power. Athens and Sparta become the dominant city states.Athens enters a “Golden Age” of intellectual and artistic achievements.Jealously over Athenian dominance of Delian League led to 25 years of civil warfare in Greece. Athens vs. Sparta (Peloponnesian Wars)Leaves Greece open to foreign invasion- Macedonia under King Philip invades and unites Greek city-states under one king.
12 III. Greek ArtGolden Age: growth of intellectual and artistic learningDirect Democracy: citizens rule directly (not through representatives)ParthenonClassical Art: portrays ideal beauty; serenity, gracefulness
16 Greek Art (cont’d) Myths: traditional stories about Greek gods Drama: Tragedy: serious drama with a tragic flawComedy: humorousHomer: greatest storyteller of GreeceThe IliadThe OdysseyMyths: traditional stories about Greek gods
17 IV. PhilosophersPhilosophers: “lovers of wisdom” ; determined to seek truth wherever they were led
18 Philosophers (cont’d) Socratesbelieved absolute standards did exist for truth and justice“The unexamined life is not worth living”Brought to trial for “corrupting the youth of Athens”Socratic MethodIdeas were innateMind continued to exist after death
19 Philosophers (cont’d) PlatoStudent of SocratesThe RepublicIdeas innate
20 Philosophers (cont’d) AristotleApplied method of problem solving to psychology, physics, and biology(scientific method)Mind and body separateIdeas result of experience
21 V. Alexander the Great Peloponnesian War weakened Greek city-states Philip II becomes kingKilled at weddingAlexander becomes king (20 yrs old)Student of AristotleExpands the empire: Persia, Egypt (Alexandria), Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, ArabiaDies of Malaria (32 yrs old)
22 Alexander (cont’d) Alexander the Great’s Legacy 3 different Greeks gain control of the EmpireAntigonous of MacedoniaPtolemy seizes EgyptSeleucus took Old Persian EmpireAdopts Persian customsHellenistic culture emerges
26 Hellenistic Culture (cont’d) Greek (Hellenic) blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influencesScholarsProvided most scientific knowledgeEuclid: mathematician (geometry)Archimedes: pi, lever, screw, and pulleyArtColossus of Rhodessculpture
27 I. Origins of Rome Founded in 753 by Romulus and Remus (legend) Tiber River near Italian Peninsula; midpoint of the Med. SeaRolling hillsFertile soil3 Groups inhabited the region ( BC)LatinsGreeks (these 3 were 1st settlers)Etruscans
29 Rome (cont)b/w 750 and 600 BC the Greeks est. colonies; brought all of Italy into closer contact with the Greek civ.Etruscans strongly influenced Roman civ.Writing and architecture (esp. arch)
30 II. Roman Government Republic: citizens vote for leaders Patricians: wealthy landownersPlebeians: common farmers, artisans, and merchants (majority)Barred by law from holding imp. Govt. positionsEventually form tribunes: protected the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of patrician officialsCreated Twelve Tables: written law code (protected from patrician officials interpretations)
31 Roman Gov’t (cont’d) Parts of Roman Republic: Consuls: commanded army; directed government (similar to President of U.S.)Senate: legislative assemblyDictator: ruled in time of crisis (6 months)Legions: large military units
32 III. Rome Spreads its Power Punic WarsRome vs. Carthage (North Africa)3 separate wars1st: ( BCE)Carthage captured part of Sicily; Rome came to help out.Also for glory and plunderFought mostly at seafor some years Carthage was the most successful, notedly under the leadership of Hamilcar, but with the battle at the Aegates Islands in 241, the Carthagians were beaten so painfully that they requested peace. This agreement involved leaving Sicily and paying a huge indemnity. Rome now controlled Sicily.
34 2nd: ( BCE)It was the Carthagians bitterness over both the agreement from the first war, and the Roman expansion following the next years (Corsica and Sardinia was taken from Carthage in 237), that brought it on.Hannibal: Carthage general; mastermind of warWon several early battles but no decisive onesThe Romans used a tactic of delaying, and they had strong hold on the communications over both land and sea. This would eventually result in declining morals in Hannibals troopsIn 204 the Roman sunder the leadership of Scipio invaded Ifriqiya (today's Tunisia), and despite strong resistance, a peace was almost arranged in 203, when Hannibal returned. Hannibal was beaten in Zama (near today's Maktar, Tunisia) in 202. Peace was signed in 201. All claims on Spain were given up, and the Punic fleet was reduced to ten ships.
35 3rd: ( BCE)The third war was entirely provoked by the Romans. After the second defeat, Carthage managed once again to return to much of its former glory, the economy prospered, and the fleet increased. But the memory of the former Punic wars was strong in Rome; many hated the Carthaginians especially because there seemed to be nothing that could force them on their knees. Many Romans wanted to gain glory, and no enemy was more attractive than Carthage, even if the city state now longer aspired to become an empire.Masinissa deliberately provoked Carthage, and in 149 Carthage attacked him. Rome came to aid for their ally, through declaring war on Carthage. At first a peace was agreed upon, but then Rome increased their demands, decreeing a total abandonment of the city. Facing these claims, the Carthaginians returned to fighting, and soon Carthage fell under what would become a 3 year long siege. When the Romans finally breached the walls, Scipio Aemilianus took the city by storm. One week of fighting inside the city followed, then the city was burned, and the locals were either executed or sold into slavery.
36 IV. The Roman EmpireEmpire emerges after Punic Wars; republic becomes unstableEconomic TurmoilRich live on big estates (with lots of slaves)Small farmers had difficulty competingCivil War: Tribunes tried for reforms but made enemies with senatorsGenerals start to gain power (recruiting soldiers turned farmers—promising them land) and take over by force
37 Roman Empire (cont’d) Julius Caesar gains control 60 BCE Caesar joined with Crassus andPompey; ruled as a triumvirate (group of three)for 10 yrs.Elected consul (ruled for 1 yr)Excellent military leaderAppointed himself governor of Gaul (France)—becomes very popular50 BCE he defies senate; they ordered him to disband his legions and return home.49 BCE Crossed Rubicon River conquers Greece, Asia, Spain, Egypt46 BCE returned to Rome, had support of army and masses and was appointed Dictator44 BCE appointed dictator for life
38 The Roman Empire (cont’d) Governed as an absolute rulerReforms: Roman citizenship to people in the provinces; expanded the senate; built new public buildings that created new jobs for the poorSome senators feared losing their influence; some considered him a tyrantCaesar is killed by senatorsMarch 15, 44 BCE
39 The Roman Empire (cont’d) Beginning of the EmpireMore civil war; Roman Republic destroyedOctavian, Mark Antony and LepidusRuled for 10 yrsJealousy and violenceLepidus retires, Octavian and Mark Antony rivals3. Octavian rules; becomes Augustus CaesarPax Romana (207 years)After Augustus’ death, empire remained stable
40 V. Society and Culture Agriculture Slaves and Captivity Most important industry90% involved in farmingComplex roads linked the empireSlaves and CaptivityUsed slaves more than any other civilizationConquered peoples brought back to RomeWorked both city and farmSome forced to be gladiatorsOccasional rebellions (none successful)
41 Society and Culture (cont’d) Gods and GoddessesEarly Romans worshiped powerful, divine spiritsGovernment and religion linked; private and public rituals expected; worship of emperor was important as wellMajority of people were poorGovernment supported peopleGladiator gamesColosseum one of greatest structure ever built; held 50,000 people
43 Society and Culture (cont’d) Roman ArtGreco-Roman: classical civilizationRome had conquered Greece and was influenced by their cultureOne of greatest legacies to the worldRealismAugustus had great artistic achievementBas-relief; told storiesMosaics; found in wealthy homesPompeii was best example; site of Vesuvius eruption which preserved many buildings and artworks
44 Society and Culture (cont’d) LegacyLatin language; official language of Roman Catholic Church into 20th centuryAqueducts; brought water to citiesArchitecture; inspired public buildingsRoman Roads; made of stone, concrete, and sand. Lasted until Middle agesLaws; most lasting and widespreadFair and equal to all peopleInfluenced by philosophersEqual treatment under lawInnocent until proven guilty
45 VII. Fall of the Roman Empire Rome’s economy weakensInflationOverworked soilMilitary in disarrayRome splits (empire no more)West: remains Rome; Latin speakingHuns responsible for German invasions in West (Attila)East: Byzantine Empire; Greek speakingConstantine secures, moves capitol (Constantinople)Flourishes; preserves Greek and Roman culture
46 VI. Christianity Spreads JesusThe MessiahContained many ideas from JudaismStressed importance of people’s love for God and each otherPromised salvation for those who repented their sinsCrucified for defying the Roman governmentSpread of ChristianityRoads make is easyPaul
47 Christianity Spreads Constantine Christian Church Ends persecution (occurred b/c people didn’t worship Roman gods—thousands were killed, exiled, or imprisoned)Nicene Creed: basic beliefs of churchChristian ChurchPeter “rock” on which the church will be builtFirst Pope—head of the Christian ChurchBishops nextPriestsAugustine: influential writer/bishop helped define Church teachings