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The Reformation Ch. 17 Sections 3 & 4. VI. The Reformation A. Causes 1. Renaissance emphasized secular beliefs (printing press spread these ideas) 2.

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Presentation on theme: "The Reformation Ch. 17 Sections 3 & 4. VI. The Reformation A. Causes 1. Renaissance emphasized secular beliefs (printing press spread these ideas) 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Reformation Ch. 17 Sections 3 & 4

2 VI. The Reformation A. Causes 1. Renaissance emphasized secular beliefs (printing press spread these ideas) 2. Northern merchants resented paying church taxes in Rome 3. Critics claimed leaders were corrupt (Popes patronized the arts, spent extravagantly on personal pleasure, and fought wars)

3 Reformation (contd) B. Martin Luthers role 1. The 95 Thesis: Formal statements attacking the pardon-merchants Oct 31, 1517 Johann Tetzel; sold indulgences: a pardon Johann Tetzel; sold indulgences: a pardon 95 Thesis posted on church door; someone copied it in printer and ML became known all over Germany 95 Thesis posted on church door; someone copied it in printer and ML became known all over Germany 2. Reformation: a movement of religious reform

4 Reformation (contd) C. Luthers Teachings 1. People could win salvation only by faith in Gods gift of forgiveness (catholic church taught faith and good works) 2. All Church teachings should be clearly based on the bible (Pope and Church were false authorities) 3. All people with faith were equal (people didnt need priests to interpret the bible for them)

5 Reformation (contd) D. Response to Luther 1. Pope excommunicated Luther 2. Emperor declared Luther an outlaw and ordered his books banned Luther returned to Germany and found his ideas in practice… Lutherans: separate religious group that followed Luther Luther returned to Germany and found his ideas in practice… Lutherans: separate religious group that followed Luther 3. Peasants Revolt Peasants demanded end to serfdom, pillaged monasteries, Luther objected Peasants demanded end to serfdom, pillaged monasteries, Luther objected

6 VII. Protestants Form A. German War Some support Luther, some remained loyal to the pope. War erupts Some support Luther, some remained loyal to the pope. War erupts Protestants form: Christians who belong to non- Catholic churches Protestants form: Christians who belong to non- Catholic churches Peace of Augsburg: Peace of Augsburg: religious settlement allowing German princes to decide religion of each province province

7 Protestants Form (contd) B. England becomes protestant 1. Henry VIII wants son, divorce/annulment (set aside); Henry denied. 2. 1529 called Reformation Parliament: ends Popes power in England 3. Act of Supremacy, 1534: Henry, not pope, is head of England and church 4. 1559: Anglican Church (Church of England) formed by Elizabeth

8 Henry VIII timeline 1. 1509 Henry VIII becomes king of England; marries Catherine of Argon 2. 1516 daughter Mary is born 3. 1527 Henry asks the pope to end his first marriage; pope refuses 4. 1529 Henry summons Reformation Parliament 5. 1531 parliament recognizes Henry as head of Church

9 Henry VIII timeline (contd) 6. 1534 Act of Supremacy 7. 1533 Henry divorces Catherine, marries Anne Boleyn; daughter Elizabeth is born 8. 1536 Anne Boleyn is beheaded 9. 1537 Henry marries Jane Seymour, son Edward is born, Jane dies of complications 10. 1540-1542 Henry divorces new wife Anne of Cleves, executes his 5 th wife: Catherine Howard

10 Henry VIII timeline (contd) 11. 1547 Henry dies; 6 th wife Catherine Parr outlives him; Edward VI begins 6 yr rule; Protestants strong 12. 1553 Mary I (bloody Mary) begins rule and restores the Catholic Church the Catholic Church 13. 1558 Elizabeth I begins rule; restores Protestant church (Anglican Church)

11 Protestants Form (contd) C. Religious Turmoil 1. Edward VI reigns; advisors run things and make England very Protestant 2. Mary I reigns; forces England to be Catholic, kills those who oppose (bloody Mary) 3. Elizabeth I reigns; returns Protestantism; sets up Anglican church (Church of England)only legal church in England

12 Protestants Form (contd) To Please Protestants: Priests allowed to marry Priests allowed to marry Sermons in English (not Latin) Sermons in English (not Latin) This brought religious peace to England This brought religious peace to England To Please Catholics: Kept some trappings of the Catholic service like rich robes Kept some trappings of the Catholic service like rich robes Services revised to be more acceptable Services revised to be more acceptable

13 Protestants Form (contd) D. Elizabeths difficulties 1. Some protestants wanted more reform 2. Some Catholics want Mary Queen of Scots to take over (shes devout Catholic!) 3. England needs money and wants to form colonies in America as new incomeleads to conflict between monarch and Parliament

14 VIII. Calvinism Emerges Religion based on John Calvins teachings Religion based on John Calvins teachings A. Calvin tweaks Luthers ideas 1. Believed that men and women sinful by nature 2. Predestination: God knows beforehand which people will be saved (remember that Luther said humans can earn salvation) (remember that Luther said humans can earn salvation)

15 Calvinism Emerges (contd) B. Calvin leads reformation in Switzerland 1. Theocracy: govt controlled by religious leaders (he thought this was the perfect govt) 2. Est. Geneva, Switzerland as theocracy; becomes example city; has very strict rules (ie-no bright clothes or card games)

16 Calvinism Emerges (contd) C. Calvinism spreads 1. John Knox takes ideas to Scotland 1. Presbyterians: followers of Knox Becomes Scotlands official religion Becomes Scotlands official religion Get rid of Mary Queen of Scots, lets son James rule Get rid of Mary Queen of Scots, lets son James rule Swiss, Dutch, and French reformers adopt Calvinist organization and today trace roots to Calvin Swiss, Dutch, and French reformers adopt Calvinist organization and today trace roots to Calvin

17 IX. Other Protestant Reforms A. The Anabaptists baptize again 1. Only baptized people who were old enough to decide for themselves to be Christian 2. Said church and state should be separate; refused to fight wars 3. Persecuted by both Catholics and Protestants as radicals 4. Became Mennonites and Amish; influenced Quakers and Baptists who split from Anglican church

18 Other Protestant Reforms (contd) B. Womens role Played prominent roles (protected reformers, supported men) Played prominent roles (protected reformers, supported men)

19 Splits in the Christian Church

20 X. Catholic Reforms A. Catholic Reformation (counter reformation) Efforts to reform and renew Catholic church from within Efforts to reform and renew Catholic church from within Millions remained loyal to Catholicism; reform from within Millions remained loyal to Catholicism; reform from within

21 Catholic Reforms (contd) B. Jesuits Created Followers of Ignatius of Loyola; Society of Jesus Followers of Ignatius of Loyola; Society of Jesus 3 main activities: 3 main activities: Founded schools Founded schools Convert non-Christians to Catholicism Convert non-Christians to Catholicism Stop spread of Protestantism (worked well in Southern Germany and Poland) Stop spread of Protestantism (worked well in Southern Germany and Poland)

22 Catholic Reforms (contd) C. Reforming Popes Council of Trent: most important reform Council of Trent: most important reform Meeting of Catholic leaders to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers Meeting of Catholic leaders to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers Churchs interpretation of bible final; anyone with own interpretation was heretic Churchs interpretation of bible final; anyone with own interpretation was heretic Need faith and good works for salvation Need faith and good works for salvation Bible and Church tradition equally powerful authorities Bible and Church tradition equally powerful authorities Indulgences were valid expressions of faith; false selling of indulgences banned Indulgences were valid expressions of faith; false selling of indulgences banned Next pope carried out councils decrees and made list of dangerous books (Index of Forbidden Books) Bishops ordered to burn these books; included Protestant bibles Next pope carried out councils decrees and made list of dangerous books (Index of Forbidden Books) Bishops ordered to burn these books; included Protestant bibles

23 Legacy of Reformation * Ended religious unity in Europe* Religious and Social Effects Protestant churches flourished Protestant churches flourished Catholic church more unified (Council of Trent) Catholic church more unified (Council of Trent) Led to schools and colleges Led to schools and colleges Political Effects Monarchs gained power Monarchs gained power Laid groundwork for Enlightenment Laid groundwork for Enlightenment


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