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IIIIIIIV Ch. 10 – The Mole I. Molar Conversions

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A. What is the Mole? n A counting number (like a dozen) n Avogadros number (N A ) n 1 mole = 6.022 10 23 representative particles

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n 1 mole of eggs would fill all the oceans on Earth…more than 30 million times! A. What is the Mole? n 1 mole of pennies would cover the Earth ¼ mile deep! n 1 mole of basketballs would fill a bag the size of the earth!

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B. Mole/Particle Conversions MOLES NUMBER OF PARTICLES 6.022 10 23 N A (particles/mol) Particles = atoms, molecules, formula units, ions, etc N A atoms/mol N A molecules/mol

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B. Mole/Particle Conversion Examples n How many molecules are in 2.50 moles of C 12 H 22 O 11 ? 2.50 mol C 12 H 22 O 11 6.02 10 23 molecules C 12 H 22 O 11 1 mol C 12 H 22 O 11 = 1.51 10 24 molecules C 12 H 22 O 11

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n If you have 2.23 x 10 18 atoms of sodium, how many moles is that? 2.23 10 18 atoms Na 1 mole Na 6.02 10 23 atoms Na 3.70 x 10 -6 moles Na B. Mole/Particle Conversion Examples =

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n How many formula units is 3.75 moles of calcium hydroxide? 3.75 mol Ca(OH) 2 6.02 10 23 formula units Ca(OH) 2 1 mol Ca(OH) 2 = 2.26 10 24 formula units Ca(OH) 2 B. Mole/Particle Conversion Examples

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C. Molar Mass n Avogadro discovered the relationship between number of particles and volume of a gas n This was used to find the relationship for particles in a mole

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Representative Particles & Moles SubstanceChemical Formula Representative Particle Rep Particles in 1.00 mole Carbon CAtom 6.02 x 10 23 Nitrogen gas N2N2 Molecule 6.02 x 10 23 Calcium ion Ca 2+ Ion 6.02 x 10 23 Magnesium fluoride MgF 2 Formula unit 6.02 x 10 23

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C. Molar Mass n Mass of 1 mole of an element or compound n Atomic mass (on the PT) tells the... mass of each atom (amu) grams per mole (g/mol) n Round to 2 decimal places

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C. Molar Mass Examples n carbon n aluminum n zinc 12.01 g/mol 26.98 g/mol 65.39 g/mol

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C. Molar Mass Examples n water n sodium chloride H 2 O 2(1.01) + 16.00 NaCl 22.99 + 35.45 = 18.02 g/mol = 58.44 g/mol

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C. Molar Mass Examples n sodium bicarbonate n sucrose NaHCO 3 22.99 + 1.01 + 12.01 + 3(16.00) = 84.01 g/mol C 12 H 22 O 11 12(12.01) + 22(1.01) + 11(16.00) = 342.34 g/mol

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C. Molar Mass Examples n magnesium hydroxide n ammonium sulfate Mg(OH) 2 24.31 + 2(16.00) + 2(1.01) = 58.33 g/mol (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 2(14.01) + 8(1.01) + 32.06 + 4(16.00) = 132.16 g/mol

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D. Molar Conversions molar mass (g/mol) MASS IN GRAMS MOLES NUMBER OF PARTICLES 6.02 10 23 N A (particles/mol) Particles = atoms, molecules, formula units, ions, etc N A atoms/mol N A molecules/mol

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D. Molar Conversion Examples n How many moles of carbon atoms are in 26 g of carbon? 26 g C 1 mol C 12.01 g C = 2.2 mol C

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D. Molar Conversion Examples n Find the mass of 2.1 10 24 molecules of NaHCO 3. 2.1 10 24 Molecules NaHCO 3 1 mol NaHCO 3 6.02 10 23 Molecules NaHCO 3 = 290 g NaHCO 3 84.01 g NaHCO 3 1 mol NaHCO 3

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1 mol K 39.10 g K D. Molar Conversion Examples n How many moles are in 22.5 grams of potassium? 6.02 10 23 atoms K 1 mol K = 3.46 x 10 23 atoms K 22.5 g K

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IIIIIIIV The Mole I. Molar Conversions A. What is the Mole? n A counting unit n Similar to a dozen, except instead of 12, it’s 602 billion trillion 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

IIIIIIIV The Mole I. Molar Conversions A. What is the Mole? n A counting unit n Similar to a dozen, except instead of 12, it’s 602 billion trillion 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

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