3 A. Energy of Bond Formation Lattice EnergyEnergy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
4 B. Lewis Structures Covalent – show sharing of e- Ionic – show transfer of e-
5 B. Lewis Structures Covalent – show sharing of e- Ionic – show transfer of e-
6 C. Ionic Nomenclature Ionic Formulas Write each ion, cation first. Don’t show charges in the final formula.Overall charge must equal zero.If charges cancel, just write symbols.If not, use subscripts to balance charges.Use parentheses to show more than one polyatomic ion.Stock System - Roman numerals indicate the ion’s charge.
7 C. Ionic Nomenclature Ionic Names Write the names of both ions, cation first.Change ending of monatomic ions to -ide.Polyatomic ions have special names.Stock System - Use Roman numerals to show the ion’s charge if more than one is possible. Overall charge must equal zero.
8 C. Ionic Nomenclature Consider the following: Does it contain a polyatomic ion?-ide, 2 elements no-ate, -ite, 3+ elements yesDoes it contain a Roman numeral?Check the table for metals not in Groups 1 or 2.No prefixes!
9 C. Ionic NomenclatureCommon Ion Charges1+2+3+NA3-2-1-
10 C. Ionic Nomenclature Writing Ionic Formulas: Calcium chloride Ca2+ Cl1-charges do not cancel, must criss-cross chargesRewrite as complete formula without oxidation numbersCaCl212
14 D. Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals For transition metals, valence electrons and oxidation #’s are variableExceptions: Sn (tin), Pb (lead), and Ag1+, Zn2+, Cd2+Roman numerals indicate the oxidation #Chromium (III) = Cr3+Iron (II) = Fe2+Lead (IV) = Pb4+
15 E. Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals Write the ox. # in parentheses using Roman numerals. To determine oxidation #, know that overall charge of compound = 0Cr2O3CrOChromium (III) oxide3 x -2 = -62 x ___ = +6-3Chromium (II) oxide2 x -2 = -42 x ___ = +4+2
16 E. Ionic Formulas with Transition Metals Copper (II) bromideTin (IV) oxideManganese (II) chlorideCu2+ + Br - CuBr2Sn4+ + O2- Sn2O4 SnO2Mn2+ + Cl - MnCl2
17 E. Ionic Names with Transition Metals Cr2(SO4)3HgOFeCl3Chromium (III) sulfateMercury (II) oxideiron(III) chloride