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Ionic Bonding Chapter 20. A. Ionic Bonds Attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions Ions - charged atoms caused by gain or loss of electrons formed.

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Presentation on theme: "Ionic Bonding Chapter 20. A. Ionic Bonds Attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions Ions - charged atoms caused by gain or loss of electrons formed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ionic Bonding Chapter 20

2 A. Ionic Bonds Attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions Ions - charged atoms caused by gain or loss of electrons formed by transferring e - from a metal to a nonmetal

3 A. Ionic Bonds Cations (metals) first, anions written second (nonmetals or polyatomic ions) Do NOT share electrons, one gains, and one loses

4 B. Ionic Compounds Network of ions, NOT a molecule When melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity Ions are free to move, electric current is moving charges

5 C. Comparison Chart IONIC COVALENT Electrons Melting Point Soluble in Water Conduct Electricity Other Properties transferred from metal to nonmetal high yes (solution or liquid) yes crystal lattice of ions, crystalline solids shared between nonmetals low no usually not molecules, odorous liquids & gases

6 Ch Ionic Bonds Naming Ionic Compounds Oxidation Number Ionic Names Ionic Formulas

7 A. Oxidation Number The charge on an ion Indicates the # of e - gained/lost to become stable ±4±

8 For binary ionic compounds (2 elements) Write the names of both elements, cation first Change the anions ending to –ide NO PREFIXES!! NaCl = sodium chloride CaCl 2 = calcium chloride B. Ionic Names

9 NaBr Na 2 O AlCl 3 sodium bromide sodium oxide aluminum chloride B. Ionic Names

10 1. Write each ion including the oxidation number Cation is written first Oxidation numbers are written as superscripts 2. Overall charge must equal zero If charges cancel, just write the symbols If not, crisscross the charges to find subscripts C. Ionic Formulas

11 Calcium chloride Ca 2+ Cl 1- charges do not cancel, must criss-cross charges Rewrite as complete formula without oxidation numbers CaCl 2 21

12 potassium chloride magnesium nitride calcium oxide K + Cl KCl Mg 2+ N Mg 3 N 2 Ca 2+ O CaO C. Ionic Formulas

13 D. Polyatomic Ions A group of bonded atoms that have gained or lost e- List on chart – need to know these for Quiz on Tuesday!!! Parentheses are put around these when naming – (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 = ammonium sulfate

14 Naming compounds with PA ions: For ionic compounds with more than 2 elements Write the names of both ions, cation first Write the full names of polyatomic ions (usually anion) – do not change the names D. Polyatomic Ions

15 calcium hydroxide aluminum chlorate magnesium carbonate Ca 2+ OH Ca(OH) 2 Al 3+ ClO 3 Al(ClO 3 ) 3 Mg 2+ CO 3 2 MgCO 3 E. Ionic Formulas with PA Ions

16 1. Write each ion including the oxidation number Cation is written first 2. Overall charge must equal zero If charges cancel, just write the symbols If not, crisscross the charges to find subscripts 3. Use parentheses when more than one polyatomic ion is needed E. Ionic Formula with PA ions

17 calcium hydroxide aluminum chlorate magnesium carbonate Ca 2+ OH Ca(OH) 2 Al 3+ ClO 3 Al(ClO 3 ) 3 Mg 2+ CO 3 2 MgCO 3 E. Ionic Formulas with PA Ions

18 F. Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals For transition metals, valence electrons and oxidation #s are variable Sn (tin), Pb (lead), Ag 1+, and Zn 2+ Exceptions: Sn (tin), Pb (lead), Ag 1+, and Zn 2+ Roman numerals indicate the oxidation # Chromium (III) = Cr 3+ Iron (II) = Fe 2+ Lead (IV) = Pb 4+

19 Copper (II) bromide Tin (IV) oxide Manganese (II) chloride Cu 2+ + Br - CuBr 2 Sn 4+ + O 2- Sn 2 O 4 SnO 2 Mn 2+ + Cl - MnCl 2 G. Ionic Formulas with Transition Metals

20 H. Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals Write the ox. # in parentheses using Roman numerals. To determine oxidation #, know that overall charge of compound = 0 Cr 2 O 3 CrO 3 x -2 = -6 2 x ___= Chromium (III) oxide 2 x -2 = -4 2 x ___= Chromium (II) oxide Formula: Element: # atoms x charge = total charge

21 H. Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals Shortcut that sometimes works – criss-cross backwards CrCl 2 Cr Cl 2 chromium (II) chloride 21

22 Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 HgO FeCl 3 Chromium (III) sulfate Mercury (II) oxide iron(III) chloride I. Ionic Names with Transition Metals


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