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Relational Models for Aggregates Ed ONeill IFLA FRBR Workshop Dublin, Ohio, May 2, 2005 OCLC Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Relational Models for Aggregates Ed ONeill IFLA FRBR Workshop Dublin, Ohio, May 2, 2005 OCLC Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Relational Models for Aggregates Ed ONeill IFLA FRBR Workshop Dublin, Ohio, May 2, 2005 OCLC Research

2 Aggregates When you focus on one part, its hard the see the big picture There are many incompatible views of aggregates

3 Aggregates are Common Originally published in 1771, it is generally regarded as Smolletts finest novel 48 distinct expressions have been identified 274 manifestations in WorldCat – 190 in single work manifestations – 78 in aggregates (probably more; many still unidentified)

4 Focus Types of Works Granularity (Work or Aggregate) FRBR Models for Aggregates

5 Types of WorldCat Works Elemental: Works have only a single manifestation (78 %) Simple: Works have only a single expression but multiple manifestations (16 %) Complex: Works have multiple expressions (6 %) – Revisions (53%) – Translations (26%) – Aggregates (9%) – Augmentations (2%)

6 Augmentations Works where material has been added without changing the original The Expedition of Humphry Clinker has been extensively augmented with: notes, introductions, illustrations, bibliographies, glossaries, etc. This drawing by Hablot Knight Browne was used to illustrate several editions of the Expedition of Humphry Clinker

7 Revisions 1 st (1968) and 2 nd (1971) editions are authored by John Phillip Immroth. 3rd (1980) and 4th (1990) editions are authored by Lois Mai Chan and Immroths was added to the title. For the 5th (1999) edition, Immroths was dropped to revert back to the original title. Works that have been updated

8 Aggregates Multiple works combined to form an aggregate

9 Translations Works in which all expressions, except the original, are translations

10 Defining a Work Guidelines for identifying the boundaries between one work and another are briefly presented in the Report; Barbara Tillett developed a chart that further clarified these boundaries The Report provides little guidance on differentiating between components, works, and aggregates Clear guidelines for identifying components, works, and aggregates are a key to developing the full potential of FRBR

11 Need for Consistency The Report states that it is difficult to define precise boundaries for [works] and that the concept of what constitutes a work and where the line of demarcation lies between one work and another may in fact be viewed differently from one culture to another. This fails to adequately consider the impact of such flexibility in a shared cataloging environment where consistency is essential. Differing definitions of a work will result in multiple entries (duplicates) for the identical conceptual entity.

12 Universality Principle If an entity is a work in any of its manifestations, it is a work in all manifestations The criteria for identifying a work must be based on the properties of the work Since a work is an abstract entity, its properties are independent of its manifestations

13 Definitions Work: The smallest autonomous intellectual or artistic entity Aggregate: An entity comprised of multiple works Component: A subunit or component part of a work

14 Criteria Has an identity (Author / Title) Was created independently Can be used autonomously Is the typically cited entry Is sold, published, or distributed separately Has separable rights (Copyright) A work is the smallest entity that:

15 Granularity Example Components Comprised of Aggregate Grouped into Work Set of Aggregates Collected into

16 3 Models for Aggregates Single Work Work of Works Manifestation of Works

17 Single Work Model Aggregate Work Expression Manifestation Simple, non-recursive All aggregates considered to be a distinct work Each combination (or permutation) of expressions becomes a new work Identity of individual works is lost Distinction between the work and the expression is obscured Most aggregate works have a single expression; often a single manifestation

18 Single Work Model Aggregate Work Expression Manifestation

19 Work of Works Model Expression Manifestation Aggregate Work Highly complex, recursive An individual work can be part of multiple aggregates Each aggregate or work can have multiple expressions with multiple manifestations Few practical benefits Successful applications limited to very simple cases Expression Manifestation

20 w 1 Robertson Davies The Deptford trilogy w 1.1 Robertson Davies Fifth business w 1.2 Robertson Davies The manticore w 1.3 Robertson Davies World of wonders Work of Works Report, p. 28

21 Manifestation of Works Model Expression Work Manifestation Expression Work Manifestation Expression Work Manifestation Aggregate Manifestation Relatively simple, non-recursive Aggregates are primarily physical entitiesnot abstract An aggregate is considered to be a manifestation rather than a work Expressions retain their identity in all manifestations Identity of individual works is maintained Distinction between the work and the expression is preserved

22 Basis for Manifestation of Works Work Expression Is realized through Manifestation Is embodied in Only Many-to-Many Relation

23 Smolletts Works w 1 Roderick Random w 2 Humphry Clinker w 3 Smolletts novels w 3.1 Roderick Random w 3.2 Humphry Clinker w 1 Robertson Davies The Deptford trilogy w 1.1 Robertson Davies Fifth business w 1.2 Robertson Davies The manticore w 1.1 Robertson Davies World of wonders Simplified example of Smolletts novels

24 Expressions Manifestations Works Modeling Novels as a Work Novels 3 Clinker 3.2 Random 3.1 Clinker 3.2.1 Random 3.1.1 Smolletts Novels Novels 3.1 ? ?

25 Clinker Clinker 2 Clinker 1 Modeling Novels as a Work Novels 3 Smolletts Novels Clinker 3.2 Random 3.1 Clinker 3.2.1 Random 3.1.1 Novels 3.1

26 Expressions Manifestations Works Random Random 1 Clinker Clinker 2 Clinker 1 Novels as a Manifestation Smolletts Novels Aggregate

27 Bridge Over Troubled Water 1.Bridge over troubled water 2.El Condor pasa 3.Cecilia 4.Keep the customer satisfied 5.So long Frank Lloyd Wright 6.The boxer 7.Baby driver 8.The only living boy in New York 9.Why don't you write me 10.Bye, bye love 11.Song for the asking

28 Bridge Bridge 1 Bridge Over Troubled Water Bridge 2 Work 1 Bridge 3 Bridge 4

29 Recommendations Recognize the universality of works Define works as the smallest autonomous entry Exclude recursive relationships for works Treat aggregates as manifestations

30 The End Questions, Suggestions, Comments, Discussion

31 References IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records. 1998. Functional requirements for bibliographic records: final report. München: K. G. Saur. Also available online at { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2/723157/slides/slide_31.jpg", "name": "References IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records.", "description": "1998. Functional requirements for bibliographic records: final report. München: K. G. Saur. Also available online at


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