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PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 1 of 26 slides Program of the EFDA Materials Topical Group (FMTG) Sehila M. Gonzalez de Vicente Material Responsible.

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Presentation on theme: "PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 1 of 26 slides Program of the EFDA Materials Topical Group (FMTG) Sehila M. Gonzalez de Vicente Material Responsible."— Presentation transcript:

1 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 1 of 26 slides Program of the EFDA Materials Topical Group (FMTG) Sehila M. Gonzalez de Vicente Material Responsible Officer EFDA Close Support Unit - Garching

2 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 2 of 26 slides FUSION MATERIALS TOPICAL GROUP MAT-REMEV: Radiation Effects Modelling and Experimental Validation MAT-REMEV: Radiation Effects Modelling and Experimental Validation -Phase Stability and He & dpa Accumulation Trigger in-service Properties of Materials in DEMO: Magnetic Cluster Expansion: a g phase transition points in Fe, and Rate Theory: He-desorption from pre-implanted Fe-C alloys. MAT-ODSFS: Nano-structured ODS Ferritic Steel Development MAT-ODSFS: Nano-structured ODS Ferritic Steel Development - Improve the present generation of nano-structured ODS RAF steels - Start the industrial fabrication of the present generation of nano-structured ODS RAF steels - Develop an optimised generation of nano-structured and nano-grained ODS RAF steels - Investigate the stability of present and optimised generation of nano- structured ODS RAF steels under creep and irradiation

3 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 3 of 26 slides FUSION MATERIALS TOPICAL GROUP MAT-W&WALLOYS: Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys DevelopmentMAT-W&WALLOYS: Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys Development - Development of Structural Tungsten Materials - Optimization of Tungsten Armour Materials - Manufacturing Parts of Tungsten Materials - Materials Science and Modeling The long-term objective of the EFDA fusion materials programme is to develop structural as well as armour materials in combination with the necessary production and fabrication technologies for future divertor concepts MAT-SiC/SiC: SiCf/SiC Composite for Structural Application in Fusion Reactor MAT-SiC/SiC: SiCf/SiC Composite for Structural Application in Fusion Reactor - Processing techniques for manufacturing SiCf/SiC -Increase in thermal conductivity

4 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 4 of 26 slides MAT-REMEV Radiation Effects Modelling and Experimental Validation

5 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 5 of 26 slides Phase Stability and He & dpa Accumulation Trigger in-service Properties of Materials in DEMO: Magnetic Cluster Expansion: phase transition points in Fe. Rate Theory: He-desorption from pre-implanted Fe-C alloys.

6 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 6 of 26 slides Magnetism Stabilises bcc Fe at low Temperature DFT data FM bcc AF fcc 10mRy~1600 K At 0K the lowest Energy: Ferro-Magnetic (FM) bcc Fe Magnetic Cluster Expansion (MCE) Fitted on DFT data at 0K Atomic Configuration Energy with Explicit Magnetism Contribution Allows Calculating Free Energy & Phase Stability at any Finite Temperature

7 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 7 of 26 slides Magnetic Cluster Dynamics Monte Carlo Simulation of the Free Energy: Configuration Entropy Magnetic Excitation Entropy Not sufficient to Stabilise the fcc ( ) at High Temperature Adding Phonons entropy based on experimental data (Neutron Diffraction & Elastic Constants Monte Carlo Simulation of the Free Energy: Configuration Entropy Magnetic Excitation Entropy Experimental Phonons entropy For the First Time the high T domain of iron is predicted based on DFT and Atomistic Modelling & Experimental data

8 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 8 of 26 slides He-desorption from Fe-C: Rate Theory Modelling (i) DFT Energetics of He, Vacancies and Carbon in -Fe VC VC 2 VC 3 V + He HeV E b = 2.3 eV VC + He HeVC E b = 2.09 eV VC 2 + He HeVC 2 E b = 0.94 eV Carbon reduces the He-V binding energy He n-1 V m + He int He n V m He Binding Energy to He n-1 V m C Binding Energy to VC m-1 VC m-1 + C VC m He Binding Energy to He n-1 CV m

9 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 9 of 26 slides -Fe with 50 appm Carbon He-desorption from Fe-C: Rate Theory Modelling (ii) DFT based Rate Theory Modelling as function of C content Pure -Fe C-V Binding Energies and He-V Binding Energy Reductions Favour He –Desorption Submitted Phys. Rev. B -Fe with 88 appm Carbon

10 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 10 of 26 slides MAT-ODSFS Nano-structured ODS Ferritic Steel Development

11 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 11 of 26 slides The work programme of the European research project on nano-structured ODS RAF steels is being organized along four programmatic lines: Improve the present generation of nano-structured ODS RAF steels Improve the present generation of nano-structured ODS RAF steels Start the industrial fabrication of the present generation of nano-structured ODS RAF steels Start the industrial fabrication of the present generation of nano-structured ODS RAF steels Develop an optimised generation of nano-structured and nano-grained ODS RAF steels Develop an optimised generation of nano-structured and nano-grained ODS RAF steels Investigate the stability of present and optimised generation of nano-structured ODS RAF steels under creep and irradiation Investigate the stability of present and optimised generation of nano-structured ODS RAF steels under creep and irradiation

12 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 12 of 26 slides Manufacturing route: Mechanical alloying - elemental or pre-alloyed powders Canning and degassing of the milled powders Compaction of the powders by HIPping Thermal-mechanical treatments – Hot pressing – Hot rolling – High speed hot extrusion Z. Oksiuta et al., MAT-ODSFS EFDA Monitoring Meeting, Garching, January 2009 Materials: Fe-( )Cr-(1-2)W-( )Ti-0.3Y2O3 (in wt.%) Improve the present generation of nano-structured ODS RAF steels:

13 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 13 of 26 slides Refinement of the grain size using equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) or high-speed hot extrusion: Successful trials on the EUROFER RAFM steel Experiments will be performed on ODS steel variants M.A. Auger et al., MAT-ODSFS EFDA Monitoring Meeting, Stockholm, July 2009 T = 550°C α = 105°C 8 passes Develop an optimised generation of nano-structured and nano-grained ODS RAF steels:

14 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 14 of 26 slides Investigate the stability of present and optimised generation of nanostructured ODS RAF steels under creep and irradiation Specimens of the MA957 ODS ferritic steel in the hot extruded and cold worked condition have been irradiated in the SINQ facility (Swiss Spallation Neutron Source): – Doses = 5-20 dpa – T = °C – 50 appm He/dpa – 450 apm H/dpa Tensile tests: The irradiated MA957 ODS ferritic steel retained a significant ductility at both 25°C and 250°C testing temperatures J. Henry et al. EFDA Monitoring Meeting, July 2009

15 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 15 of 26 slides MAT-W&WALLOYS Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys Development

16 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 16 of 26 slides Goals & Roadmap 2008 Structural Material Development … Armour Material Optimisation Fabrication Process Development Identification/Exclusion of Killing Factors … … … Materials Science & Modeling …

17 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 17 of 26 slides Development of Structural Tungsten Materials –Can the DBTT be significantly decreased? –Is it possible to reach a compromise between strength, ductility, and heat conductivity? –Can we live with a pronounced anisotropic micro-structure or is it necessary to produce isotropic structured materials? Optimization of Tungsten Armour Materials –What is the optimized microstructure for fusion relevant thermo-mechanical load conditions? –Is it possible to increase the crack resistivity? –What are possible solutions for the oxidation problem? Manufacturing Parts of Tungsten Materials –How to avoid micro-cracks? –What alternative fabrication process could be suitable? –Are there applicable reduced activation brazing materials for W-W and W-steel joints? –Can mass/series production processes be applied to tungsten parts? Materials Science and Modeling –What makes tungsten so brittle? –Is ductilization possible besides Re addition? –What is the influence of impurities and microstructure on the material behavior? –How does tungsten behave under high neutron doses and after significant He/H load?

18 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 18 of 26 slides Structural Tungsten Materials: Microstructure of Commercial Alloys Ø20 mm 93 % Swagin g Ø20 mm 93 % Swaging Ø10 mm 81% Rolling Ø7 mm 91% Sw+Rol W-1%Ta Ø6,9 mm 91% Rolling R. Pippan, ÖAW R. Pippan, ÖAW Forging Direction

19 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 19 of 26 slides Structural Tungsten Materials: Development Fabrication by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Isostatic Pressing 200 µm 20 µm W-1La 2 O 3 W-4V Alloys Hardness (GPa) W-1La 2 O W-4V-1La 2 O W-4V3.40 W-2V3.16 W2.67 W-0.5Y 2 O W-4Ti4.47 W-4%Ti-0.5Y 2 O A. Muñoz, M.A. Auger, T. Leguey, M.A. Monge, R. Pareja, CIEMAT/UC3M/UPM A. Muñoz, M.A. Auger, T. Leguey, M.A. Monge, R. Pareja, CIEMAT/UC3M/UPM

20 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 20 of 26 slides Oxidation Resistant Tungsten Armor Materials W-Si-Cr Protection Bulk Materials Self Passivating Thin Films C. García-Rosales, P. López, N. Ordás, CEIT C. García-Rosales, P. López, N. Ordás, CEIT F. Koch, C. Lenser, M. Rasinski*, M. Balden, Ch. Linsmeier, IPP F. Koch, C. Lenser, M. Rasinski*, M. Balden, Ch. Linsmeier, IPP 0.25 h 0.5 h 1 h 0.75 h µm 2 µm quarternary alloys WSi3Cr10Zr5 SEM of cross section, oxidized at 1000°C at different times µm 1 µm W10Si10Cr after 1400 °C MA: W/CrSi 2 MA: WSi 2 /W/Cr

21 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 21 of 26 slides Manufacturing Parts of Tungsten Materials Functional Gradient Material, Mass Production, EC Layer Deposition Thimble by Press Rolling J. Reiser, FZK J. Reiser, FZK S. Antusch, FZK S. Antusch, FZK Tile by Powder Injection Molding J. v.d. Laan, NRG J. v.d. Laan, NRG µm 5 µm WC W/WC WC/Fe Eurofer W or W alloy W –Fe –C (1200°C) Gradient by Powder Metallurgy J.M. Missiaen, J. Schlosser, Grenoble-INP & CEA J.M. Missiaen, J. Schlosser, Grenoble-INP & CEA Ni on W Electro-Chemical Layer Deposition constant thickness on edges Eurofer W W. Krauss, N. Holstein, J. Konys, J. Lorenz, FZK W. Krauss, N. Holstein, J. Konys, J. Lorenz, FZK

22 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 22 of 26 slides Materials Science and Modeling Experiments at JANNUS etc. Theory/Computation/Validation TEM (extended defects investigations) Dual and triple beam irradiation: high dpa levels high dpa levels simultaneously with He implantation simultaneously with He implantation H / He co-implantation synergy H / He co-implantation synergy Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) Doppler broadening Doppler broadening Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy Positron Lifetime SpectroscopySurface 300 nm ~ 750 nm M.-F. Barthe, P.-E. Lhuillier, T. Sauvage, P. Desgardin, CEMHTI, CNRS Orléans, M.-F. Barthe, P.-E. Lhuillier, T. Sauvage, P. Desgardin, CEMHTI, CNRS Orléans, R. Schäublin, EPFL, CRPP R. Schäublin, EPFL, CRPP P. Trocellier, CEA P. Trocellier, CEA Object Kinetic Monte Carlo (LAKIMOCA) C.S. Becquart, C. Domain, U. Sarkar, M. Hou, LMPGM Villeneuve d´Ascq, EDF Moret sur Loing, Université Libre de Bruxelles C.S. Becquart, C. Domain, U. Sarkar, M. Hou, LMPGM Villeneuve d´Ascq, EDF Moret sur Loing, Université Libre de Bruxelles DFT Calculations: He & Vacancies near Surfaces (SIESTA) C.-C. Fu, CEA C.-C. Fu, CEA Ab Initio Dislocation Modeling L. Ventelon, F. Willaime, M.-C. Marinica, CEA L. Ventelon, F. Willaime, M.-C. Marinica, CEA L. Romaner, ÖAW L. Romaner, ÖAW Micromechanics R. Pippan, ÖAW R. Pippan, ÖAW 10 µm

23 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 23 of 26 slides MAT-SiC/SiC SiCf/SiC Composite for Structural Application in Fusion Reactor

24 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 24 of 26 slides SiC/SiC Composites for structural application High residual porosity for the most developed processing route (CVI) SiC fibres sensitive at high T processing Sintering additive are needed for densification Porosity and oxide impurities lower the -SiC transforms to -SiC at high temperatures ISSUESMAIN REQUIREMENTS Non-porous (gas impermeability) ……………. High mechanical strength and reliability…… Low netron activation …………………….. High thermal conductivity ………………………. No (low) swelling ………………………………….. Elimination / lowering porosity alternative processing technique Increase in thermal conductivity lower porosity + incorporation of materials with higher e.g. metal) OBJECTIVES

25 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 25 of 26 slides Processing techniques for manufacturing SiC f /SiC CVI - Chemical vapor infiltration open porosity,.. PIP - Preceramic polymer infiltration and pyrolysis open porosity,.. NITE - Nano-powder infiltration and transient eutectoide Ceramic processing: SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 high sintering T & p, Al,..?. SiTE * - Slip-Infiltration (EPI) + Transient Eutectoide Hybrid SITE # - Slip infiltration (EPI) + PIP 1.E-field driven powder infiltration 2.Vacuum infiltration with precursor * SiO 2 -MeO-P 2 O 5 (Me=Al, Mg) / # preceramic polymer 3. * Sintering at T< 1500 °C / # pyrolysis+crystallisation Increase in thermal conductivity Porosity reduction: electrophoretic infiltration to increase green density W-wires incorporation: feasibility study reactivity?! CNT-coating on SiC-fibres: feasibility study W-wire SiC-matrix (SITE) ?

26 PWI meeting, 4-6 Nov. Warsaw (Poland) 26 of 26 slides CNT-interphase layer on SiC fibers Proposed effects of CNT interphase layer on SiC fibers: increase in toughness and reliability by crack deflection (energy dissipation) Increase in thermal conductivity (CNT-SiC) f /SiC CNT = > 2000 W/mK K. König, S. Novak, et al, Fabrication of CNT-SiC/SiC composites by electrophoretic deposition, JECS, xxx (2009) Tyrano SA CNT CNT-coated SiC-fiber Increase in thermal conductivity (W,SiC) f /SiC W-wire SiC-matrix (SITE) ? w ~ 170 W/mK


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