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Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July 20 2010 1 Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik D retention and release behaviour of.

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Presentation on theme: "Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July 20 2010 1 Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik D retention and release behaviour of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik D retention and release behaviour of Be/C/W mixed materials K. Sugiyama, K. Krieger, J. Roth Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association A. Anghel, C. Porosnicu, C.P. Lungu National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics of Romania, Association EURATOM-MEdC M.J. Baldwin, R.P. Doerner Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego (WP10-PWI /IPP/PS, WP10-PWI /MEdC/PS)

2 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Outline Introduction Experimental procedure Results Summary and Outlook

3 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Introduction Wall materials in ITER 690 m 2 Be: first wall and start-up limiter modules 140 m 2 W: divertor dome / baffle region 55 m 2 CFC: divertor strike point areas Material mixture Tritium retention in mixed materials Be W CFC Wall baking for tritium removal in ITER 240 ºC: Main chamber 350 ºC: Divertor region Experimental approach in this task Preparation of ITER relevant (Be-related) mixed material samples Investigation of D retention and release behaviour of mixed materials

4 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Outline Introduction Experimental procedure Results Summary and Outlook

5 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Sample preparation Experimental procedure Be 12 W fabrication by annealing of W film on Be substrate sample at 1073K, 10 hours Be 2 C fabrication by annealing of C film on Be substrate sample at 773K, 3 hours WC fabrication by annealing of W film on graphite substrate sample at 1373K, 4 hours Compounds fabrication by thermal treatment of Be-W / Be-C / W-C system Be-W / Be-C simultaneously deposited layers Upgrade of TVA setup for the simultaneous deposition Depositions were successfully done with varying Be/W and Be/C ratios Be-related depositions were prepared by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) deposition method in MEdC

6 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Sample preparation Experimental procedure Be 12 W fabrication by annealing of W film on Be substrate sample at 1073K, 10 hours Be 2 C fabrication by annealing of C film on Be substrate sample at 773K, 3 hours WC fabrication by annealing of W film on graphite substrate sample at 1373K, 4 hours Compounds fabrication by thermal treatment of Be-W / Be-C / W-C system Be-W / Be-C simultaneously deposited layers D implantation to prepared layers 200 eV D ions implantation in the High Current Ion Source in IPP-Garching Flux ~ D/m 2, Fluences up to ~10 23 D/m 2 Post mortem analysis for the prepared samples D release behaviour analysis by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) Quantitative analysis by Nuclear Reaction Analysis using D( 3 He, p) 4 He reaction

7 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Outline Introduction Experimental procedure Results Be-related compounds layer W-C compound (WC) layer Be-W simultaneously deposited layer Be-C simultaneously deposited layer Summary and Outlook

8 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Desorption flux [10 14 D 2 /cm 2 /s] Typical desorption from pure materials Typical D desorption spectra from pure materials CFC (NB31) W (ITER-grade) Be Be: Sharp desorption peak at C W: Primary desorption at C CFC: Broad desorption feature above 400 C D implantation to each material 200 eV D implantation in the High Current Ion Source in IPP-Garching Flux ~ D/m 2 Implantation temperature: RT Fluence ~ D/m 2 Fluence ~ D/m 2

9 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Be 2 C: Additional desorption stage in the high temperature range (> 400 º C) Be 2 C Be D desorption from Be-related compounds D implantation to Be-related compound layers Be: Primary desorption peak at º C D fluence ~ D/m RT

10 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July D release during the temperature hold at 350 ºC Be 2 C Be The desorption flux drops down when the temperature reaches the plateau at 350 ºC. The desorption flux reaches almost background level during the 20 min. hold % of retained D additionally released during the temperature hold at 350 ºC.

11 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Be 2 C Be 2 C: Additional desorption stage in the high temperature range (> 400 º C) Be 12 W Be 12 W: The primary desorption peak becomes less intense and broader Be D desorption from Be-related compounds D implantation to Be-related compound layers Be: Primary desorption peak at ºC D fluence ~ D/m RT

12 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July ºC240ºC Be 2 C Be 12 W Be D retained fraction in Be-related compounds Be: 90 % of initially retained D is released at 350 ºC Compounds: % of initially retained D is released at 350 ºC

13 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Fluence ~ D/m RT Bulk-W WC D release from WC layer Bulk-W WC 240ºC 350ºC D release from WC shows primary desorption stage at K

14 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Be Be 12 W Fluence ~ D/m RT D release from Be-W simultaneously deposited layer Mixing of W in Be slightly changes the D desorption behaviour. The retention amount decreases by increase of W fraction in Be. W~10 at.% W~60 at.% Be 12 W Be 240ºC350ºC W~10 at.% W~60 at.% Bulk-W

15 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Be Be 2 C C ~ 50 at.% C ~ 8 at.% Fluence ~ D/m RT D release from Be-C simultaneously deposited layer D release behaviour totally changes in the case of C-rich mixed layer sample 240ºC Be 2 C Be C ~ 8 at.% 350ºC C ~ 50 at.%

16 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July How will the wall baking work in ITER ? Best performance will be expected for: removal from clean Be deposit the removal from Be-hydrogen codeposition formed at cool areas The efficiency is marginal for: Be-W codeposited layer and compounds Be-rich Be-C mixed deposition Less efficiency for: C-rich (C conc. > 50 at.%) Be-C mixed deposition the hot surface (temperature is > 350ºC during a discharge) W C Be 12 W Be 2 C

17 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Summary and Outlook Outlook: D implantation to mixed material samples at high temperatures - Temperature dependence of D retention in mixed material samples Further upgrade of TVA setup for Be-W-C (ternary) simultaneous deposition What we have done are: Mixed material sample fabrication (collaboration with MEdC) - TVA setup successfully upgraded for the Be-W / Be-C simultaneous deposition Investigation of D release from mixed materials for the assessment of T removal operation in ITER (wall baking at 240 ºC / 350 ºC) Messages: D release behaviour is affected by material mixing - Influence of C is more significant. - T removal efficiency of 350 ºC baking decreases by material mix compared to the case of pure Be or W.

18 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Annex

19 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Compound layer formation Compound layer preparation Be-related compounds fabrication by thermal treatment of Be-W / Be-C system Be 12 W fabrication by annealing of W film on Be substrate sample at 1073K, 10 hours Be 2 C fabrication by annealing of C film on Be substrate sample at 773K, 3 hours Be 2 C Be 12 W

20 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Tungsten carbide layer formation W on graphite: annealed at ~1300 K, 4 hrs Ch. Linsmeier et al. (2001) W on graphite: W layer is completely changed to WC layer M. Balden

21 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Chemical state: Be-W simultaneously deposited layer Sputter XPS depth profiling Sample: Be ~ 80%, W ~20 % Most of Be is metallic and the rest is oxide. Almost no alloy

22 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Fluence dependence of D retention Fluence dependence of D retention in Be-related compounds 200 eV D RT Be 2 C Be 12 W Be-bulk Graphite W Expected fluence to the wall after single ITER discharge (400 s) Be-film Literature data: Be-bulk: Anderl et al. (2001) Graphite: Staudenmaier et al. (1979) W: Ogorodnikova et al. (2003) Literature data: Be-bulk: Anderl et al. (2001) Graphite: Staudenmaier et al. (1979) W: Ogorodnikova et al. (2003)

23 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July D retention in mixed material layers Be-C simultaneously deposited layer Be-W simultaneously deposited layer

24 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Be Be 12 W Fluence ~ D/m RT D release from Be-W simultaneously deposited layer Mixing of W in Be slightly changes the D desorption behaviour. The retention amount decreases by increase of W fraction in Be. W~10 at.% W~60 at.% Be 12 W Be 240ºC350ºC W~10 at.% W~60 at.% Bulk-W

25 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July Implantation temperature [K] D retention in Be at different implantation temperatures U. Toronto: A.A. Haasz et al. (1997) SNL/LANL: R.A. Causey et al. (1997) PISCES-B: R.P. Doerner et al. (1997) INEEL: R.A. Anderl et al.(1997) DiMES: W.P. Wampler et al. (1996) U. Toronto: A.A. Haasz et al. (1997) SNL/LANL: R.A. Causey et al. (1997) PISCES-B: R.P. Doerner et al. (1997) INEEL: R.A. Anderl et al.(1997) DiMES: W.P. Wampler et al. (1996) Literature data Be film Be 12 W Be film Be 12 W This study Amount of D retention in the Be decrease with the implantation temperature, especially, above 200 ºC.

26 Kazuyoshi Sugiyama, SEWG meeting on Fuel retention, Garching, July ºC 300 ºC RT D implantation to Be layers at different temperatures D desorption in the low temperature stage is reasonably reduced by increase of implantation temperature. Obviously no D desorption at temperature below the implantation temperature 350ºC 300ºC 150ºC RT 240ºC Influence of implantation temperature


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