Presentation on theme: "Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety"— Presentation transcript:
1Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety Competencies
2What is safety?Safety is defined as freedom from danger, risk, or injury.This is NOT possible to achieve. So, we have to ensure that our environment is as safe as possible by:Keeping a clean areaUsing safety equipmentFollowing all instructions
4Safety EquipmentThe following safety equipment is most often used in laboratory settings:Eye protectionLab coatsGlovesFire protection equipmentMaterials storage cabinetsEye wash/showerFume hood
5Eye Protection Safety glasses, safety goggles, or face shield Used to protect eyes and face from spills or splashes (one of the most common accidents in labs)
6Eye Protection Face shields offer the most protection Scratches can be avoided by never laying the protection face down
7Lab Coats Protect body and clothes from spills Contribute to a sterile environment
8Gloves Usually surgical style, thin plastic Offer some protection to skinUsed to achieve aseptic conditions
9Fire Protection Equipment Fire blanketFire extinguisherFire alarmShould be easily accessible and clearly markedIn order to extinguish a fire, the fuel must be known
10Fire Protection Equipment Fire extinguishers should be rated for chemical and/or liquid firesClasses of fire extinguishersClass A-paper/woodClass B-liquidsClass C-electricalClass D-combustible metals
11Fire Protection Equipment Fire extinguisher should be aimed at the base of the flames and used until flames are completely extinguished.
12Fire Protection Equipment Fire blankets are most effective for smoldering small flames on an individual’s clothing or person.
13Materials Storage Cabinets FlammablesMost common type of cabinetIsolates flammable chemicals for safetyShould contain chemicals ONLYFire resistant, not fire proof
14Materials Storage Cabinets AcidsIsolate chemicals with specialized spill containers
15Eye Wash/Shower Should be checked often Should only be used in case of emergencyAfter chemical exposure, eyes should be rinsed for more than a minute to ensure that damage is limited as much as possible.
16Fume HoodRemoves noxious fumes produced by chemical solutions from the laboratoryVery expensive
18General GuidelinesKeep the workspace clean and clear of any obstructions and excess equipment, people, and/or supplies.Keep supplies and equipment in an easily accessible location.
19Chemical SafetyMake certain that chemicals are clearly labeled with Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) well marked and easily accessible.
20Chemical Spills and Exposure Spills should be quickly contained and the area securedSpecial media can be used to absorb harmful chemicals
21Chemical Spills and Exposure Any exposed skin should be immediately rinsed or neutralized (in the case of acid or base)particularly with eye exposure MSDS should be consulted for treatmentA mild acid can sometimes be used to neutralize areas exposed to a strong base (works both ways)
22Chemical Spills and Exposure Chemicals consumed orally should be treated using the chemical’s MSDS sheet.
23MSDS SheetsMSDS sheets contain important information on chemicals including:Chemical propertiesStorageDisposal proceduresTreatment for exposure
24MSDS SheetsUsing the worksheet provided research information on the Material Safety Data Sheets for three chemicals.
25Handling ChemicalsOnly use chemicals that are properly labeled, with current MSDS sheetsUse only approved containers for mixing and storing chemical solutionsUse a graduated cylinder or digital scale to ensure that the proper amount of chemicals are added to the solution
26Handling ChemicalsWhen pouring liquid chemicals, place containers in contact whenever possible to prevent spills.Do not leave chemicals unattended outside of storage areas.When creating acid solutions, acids should always be poured slowly into water, to prevent splashing
27Handling ChemicalsFederal law requires chemicals to be diluted before disposal being careful not to mix chemicals that react violently.Make certain that all necessary permits are obtained from government regulatory agencies for the use of restricted chemicals and biologicals.
29Sterilization Equipment An autoclave is the best method for sterilization of small lab equipment, water/solutions, glassware, and lab materials.Even paper towels and cotton swabs can be sterilized.Autoclaves will KILL all live material
30Sterilization Equipment Flow hoods and surfaces can be cleaned/disinfected with a bleach based solution
31Sterilization Equipment Forceps and other equipment should never be placed in contact with surfacesShould be kept in a 70% ethanol (alcohol) solution, and flamed over an alcohol lamp before contacting sterile material.
32Creating a Sterile Environment Tissue culture and other aseptic lab techniques work best in a clean room or under a Laminar Flow Hood
33Creating a Sterile Environment Laminar flow hoods use a special filter (hepa filter) to clean air that needs changed after a given number of hours.Sterile boxes can be created with plexiglass or plastic sheeting for a more affordable but less reliable alternative.
34Creating a Sterile Environment Once the area is sterilized the movement of equipment and materials into and out of the work area should be minimized.
35Maintaining Sterile Conditions A face shield or front cover should be used to prevent contamination from mouth and nose (breathing).
36Maintaining Sterile Conditions Hands and armsShould be carefully washed with soap and waterAn anti-bacterial soap should be used on hands over wrists, immediately before placement in sterile surgical gloves.Hands should be kept inside the air curtain of the flow hood at all times, away from the edge or entrance to avoid accidental contamination.
37Maintaining Sterile Conditions Sleeves should be away from hands and shedding materials should be avoidedA lab coat is ideal.
39MSDS SheetsMSDS Sheets provide all the information necessary for storage, handling, and disposal of a chemical or solutionIncludes the chemical formula, reactivity data, storage temperatures, exposure/ inhalation/ingestion treatments, disposal methods, dangers with use, etc.Should be easily accessible in the lab
40Mixing ChemicalsMake certain to clearly label the COMPOSITION AND STRENGTH of all solutionsUnder concentrated solutions can be ineffectiveOver concentrated solutions can be extremely dangerous
41Mixing ChemicalsAlways pour concentrated acids INTO cool water (NOT THE OTHER WAY AROUND)Pour with beakers or bottles in contact when possible, running the liquid down the side of the glass to avoid splashing or flash boilingKNOW WHAT YOU ARE COMBINING OR CREATING!!!
42Use of Biological Materials Biological materials should be carefully stored and utilized with careful attention to temperature.Bacteria cultures should NEVER be incubated at temperatures ABOVE 30 degrees C, as higher temps encourage the growth of organisms harmful to humans.
43Use of Biological Materials Biological materials should be clearly labeled and stored in clearly marked and isolated areas.BACTERIA
44Use of Biological Materials Any harmful biological materials should be destroyed prior to disposalAutoclaves can be used to destroy most bacteria cultures and plant or animal cells.Agricultural labs often use special biological materials disposal containers to store materials until pickup for destruction by an external company.
46Laboratory EquipmentThere are several different types of equipment that are essential to labs:AutoclaveCentrifugeMicropipetteCompound Light MicroscopeIncubatorWater BathHot PlateShakerGraduated Cylinder
47AutoclaveA chamber that uses high levels of heat and pressure to sterilize instruments and materials, or destroy harmful organisms/pathogens.
48Autoclave SafetyCheck all gauges and valves before using an autoclave.Never leave equipment unattended while running, as high temperatures and pressure can be dangerous.
49CentrifugeAn instrument used to isolate solids (in the form of a small pellet) from a solution.Utilizes very small tubes to hold the solution.
50Using a CentrifugeProper use of a centrifuge requires that the instrument be balanced.This can be accomplished by placing an equal number of tubes directly across from each other in the instrument.
51MicropipetteAn instrument used to measure and extract very small amounts of liquid from a solution.Different versions measure to different levels of accuracy, but usually to the nearest uL (microliter)Often used to hand small amounts of solution needed in DNA labs.
52Using a MicropipetteTo avoid air bubbles and extract the correct amount of solution utilizing a micropipette, the tip must be completely submerged in the solution.
53Compound Light Microscope The most common and versatile microscope in agricultural research labs.Uses a light source in combination with a variety of lenses to magnify images usually up to no more than 200x.
55IncubatorSealed chamber with controls to manage temperature (and sometimes humidity)Used for culture of microorganisms
56Incubator SafetyWhen culturing bacteria, it is important that the incubator remains closed, and the plates tightly sealed.
57Water BathA vessel that uses water to heat or maintain a constant temperature of laboratory materials or equipment.Often used to heat or thaw fragile biologicals including semen.
58Using a Water BathWhen using a water bath to thaw semen straws, the bath should be heated to 93 degrees F and the straws submersed immediately upon removal from the storage tank for 45 seconds.
59Hot PlateInstrument that applies direct heat to glassware containing laboratory solutionsCoil models (like stove tops) are dangerousNewer models have ceramic tops and often integrated magnetic stirrers.
60ShakerUsed to mix or agitate small volumes of solution, often prior to placement in a centrifuge.
61Graduated Cylinder Used to measure the volume of liquids Readings should always be taken at the MENISCUS, the lowest part of the curve.
63Logging Scientific Data Most easily accomplished in a database program-ex: Microsoft ExcelAbilities include:Easy input of large amounts of data in a table formQuick manipulation of data including; sorting, labeling, and the creation of charts/graphsCan handle both qualitative and quantitative data
64Publishing FindingsWord processors are usually used to prepare scientific reports-ex: Microsoft Word or Apple WorksAllow quick entry and manipulation of large amounts of textEasy import of graphics and charts from other programsAbility to include hyperlinks and export layout to html
65Presenting ResearchAccomplished using a specialized presentation program-ex: Microsoft PowerPoint or Apple KeynoteEasy display of text points (bullets), graphics, charts, and even videoHighly visual and interactive method for the presentation of research findingsAnimation and sound can be used for increased emphasis.