Presentation on theme: "Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety Competencies 9.00-10.00."— Presentation transcript:
Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety Competencies
What is safety? Safety is defined as freedom from danger, risk, or injury. This is NOT possible to achieve. So, we have to ensure that our environment is as safe as possible by: Keeping a clean area Using safety equipment Following all instructions
The following safety equipment is most often used in laboratory settings: Eye protection Lab coats Gloves Fire protection equipment Materials storage cabinets Eye wash/shower Fume hood
Eye Protection Safety glasses, safety goggles, or face shield Used to protect eyes and face from spills or splashes (one of the most common accidents in labs)
Eye Protection Face shields offer the most protection Scratches can be avoided by never laying the protection face down
Lab Coats Protect body and clothes from spills Contribute to a sterile environment
Gloves Usually surgical style, thin plastic Offer some protection to skin Used to achieve aseptic conditions
Fire Protection Equipment Fire blanket Fire extinguisher Fire alarm Should be easily accessible and clearly marked In order to extinguish a fire, the fuel must be known
Fire Protection Equipment Fire extinguishers should be rated for chemical and/or liquid fires Classes of fire extinguishers Class A-paper/wood Class B-liquids Class C-electrical Class D-combustible metals
Fire Protection Equipment Fire extinguisher should be aimed at the base of the flames and used until flames are completely extinguished.
Fire Protection Equipment Fire blankets are most effective for smoldering small flames on an individuals clothing or person.
Materials Storage Cabinets Flammables Most common type of cabinet Isolates flammable chemicals for safety Should contain chemicals ONLY Fire resistant, not fire proof
Eye Wash/Shower Should be checked often Should only be used in case of emergency After chemical exposure, eyes should be rinsed for more than a minute to ensure that damage is limited as much as possible.
Fume Hood Removes noxious fumes produced by chemical solutions from the laboratory Very expensive
General Guidelines Keep the workspace clean and clear of any obstructions and excess equipment, people, and/or supplies. Keep supplies and equipment in an easily accessible location.
Chemical Safety Make certain that chemicals are clearly labeled with Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) well marked and easily accessible.
Chemical Spills and Exposure Spills should be quickly contained and the area secured Special media can be used to absorb harmful chemicals
Chemical Spills and Exposure Any exposed skin should be immediately rinsed or neutralized (in the case of acid or base) particularly with eye exposure MSDS should be consulted for treatment A mild acid can sometimes be used to neutralize areas exposed to a strong base (works both ways)
Chemical Spills and Exposure Chemicals consumed orally should be treated using the chemicals MSDS sheet.
MSDS Sheets MSDS sheets contain important information on chemicals including: Chemical properties Storage Disposal procedures Treatment for exposure
MSDS Sheets Using the worksheet provided research information on the Material Safety Data Sheets for three chemicals.
Handling Chemicals Only use chemicals that are properly labeled, with current MSDS sheets Use only approved containers for mixing and storing chemical solutions Use a graduated cylinder or digital scale to ensure that the proper amount of chemicals are added to the solution
When pouring liquid chemicals, place containers in contact whenever possible to prevent spills. Do not leave chemicals unattended outside of storage areas. When creating acid solutions, acids should always be poured slowly into water, to prevent splashing Handling Chemicals
Federal law requires chemicals to be diluted before disposal being careful not to mix chemicals that react violently. Make certain that all necessary permits are obtained from government regulatory agencies for the use of restricted chemicals and biologicals. Handling Chemicals
Creating and Maintaining a Sterile Environment
Sterilization Equipment An autoclave is the best method for sterilization of small lab equipment, water/solutions, glassware, and lab materials. Even paper towels and cotton swabs can be sterilized. Autoclaves will KILL all live material
Sterilization Equipment Flow hoods and surfaces can be cleaned/disinfected with a bleach based solution
Forceps and other equipment should never be placed in contact with surfaces Should be kept in a 70% ethanol (alcohol) solution, and flamed over an alcohol lamp before contacting sterile material. Sterilization Equipment
Creating a Sterile Environment Tissue culture and other aseptic lab techniques work best in a clean room or under a Laminar Flow Hood
Creating a Sterile Environment Laminar flow hoods use a special filter (hepa filter) to clean air that needs changed after a given number of hours. Sterile boxes can be created with plexiglass or plastic sheeting for a more affordable but less reliable alternative.
Creating a Sterile Environment Once the area is sterilized the movement of equipment and materials into and out of the work area should be minimized.
Maintaining Sterile Conditions A face shield or front cover should be used to prevent contamination from mouth and nose (breathing).
Maintaining Sterile Conditions Hands and arms Should be carefully washed with soap and water An anti-bacterial soap should be used on hands over wrists, immediately before placement in sterile surgical gloves. Hands should be kept inside the air curtain of the flow hood at all times, away from the edge or entrance to avoid accidental contamination.
Sleeves should be away from hands and shedding materials should be avoided A lab coat is ideal. Maintaining Sterile Conditions
Tips for Laboratory Projects
MSDS Sheets MSDS Sheets provide all the information necessary for storage, handling, and disposal of a chemical or solution Includes the chemical formula, reactivity data, storage temperatures, exposure/ inhalation/ingestion treatments, disposal methods, dangers with use, etc. Should be easily accessible in the lab
Mixing Chemicals Make certain to clearly label the COMPOSITION AND STRENGTH of all solutions Under concentrated solutions can be ineffective Over concentrated solutions can be extremely dangerous
Mixing Chemicals Always pour concentrated acids INTO cool water (NOT THE OTHER WAY AROUND) Pour with beakers or bottles in contact when possible, running the liquid down the side of the glass to avoid splashing or flash boiling KNOW WHAT YOU ARE COMBINING OR CREATING!!!
Use of Biological Materials Biological materials should be carefully stored and utilized with careful attention to temperature. Bacteria cultures should NEVER be incubated at temperatures ABOVE 30 degrees C, as higher temps encourage the growth of organisms harmful to humans.
Biological materials should be clearly labeled and stored in clearly marked and isolated areas. Use of Biological Materials BACTERIA
Any harmful biological materials should be destroyed prior to disposal Autoclaves can be used to destroy most bacteria cultures and plant or animal cells. Agricultural labs often use special biological materials disposal containers to store materials until pickup for destruction by an external company. Use of Biological Materials
Laboratory Equipment and Its Uses
Laboratory Equipment There are several different types of equipment that are essential to labs: Autoclave Centrifuge Micropipette Compound Light Microscope Incubator Water Bath Hot Plate Shaker Graduated Cylinder
Autoclave A chamber that uses high levels of heat and pressure to sterilize instruments and materials, or destroy harmful organisms/pathogens.
Autoclave Safety Check all gauges and valves before using an autoclave. Never leave equipment unattended while running, as high temperatures and pressure can be dangerous.
Centrifuge An instrument used to isolate solids (in the form of a small pellet) from a solution. Utilizes very small tubes to hold the solution.
Using a Centrifuge Proper use of a centrifuge requires that the instrument be balanced. This can be accomplished by placing an equal number of tubes directly across from each other in the instrument.
Micropipette An instrument used to measure and extract very small amounts of liquid from a solution. Different versions measure to different levels of accuracy, but usually to the nearest uL (microliter) Often used to hand small amounts of solution needed in DNA labs.
Using a Micropipette To avoid air bubbles and extract the correct amount of solution utilizing a micropipette, the tip must be completely submerged in the solution.
Compound Light Microscope The most common and versatile microscope in agricultural research labs. Uses a light source in combination with a variety of lenses to magnify images usually up to no more than 200x.
Compound Light Microscope
Incubator Sealed chamber with controls to manage temperature (and sometimes humidity) Used for culture of microorganisms
Incubator Safety When culturing bacteria, it is important that the incubator remains closed, and the plates tightly sealed.
Water Bath A vessel that uses water to heat or maintain a constant temperature of laboratory materials or equipment. Often used to heat or thaw fragile biologicals including semen.
Using a Water Bath When using a water bath to thaw semen straws, the bath should be heated to 93 degrees F and the straws submersed immediately upon removal from the storage tank for 45 seconds.
Hot Plate Instrument that applies direct heat to glassware containing laboratory solutions Coil models (like stove tops) are dangerous Newer models have ceramic tops and often integrated magnetic stirrers.
Shaker Used to mix or agitate small volumes of solution, often prior to placement in a centrifuge.
Graduated Cylinder Used to measure the volume of liquids Readings should always be taken at the MENISCUS, the lowest part of the curve.
Recording and Presenting Laboratory Data
Logging Scientific Data Most easily accomplished in a database program-ex: Microsoft Excel Abilities include: Easy input of large amounts of data in a table form Quick manipulation of data including; sorting, labeling, and the creation of charts/graphs Can handle both qualitative and quantitative data
Publishing Findings Word processors are usually used to prepare scientific reports-ex: Microsoft Word or Apple Works Allow quick entry and manipulation of large amounts of text Easy import of graphics and charts from other programs Ability to include hyperlinks and export layout to html
Presenting Research Accomplished using a specialized presentation program-ex: Microsoft PowerPoint or Apple Keynote Easy display of text points (bullets), graphics, charts, and even video Highly visual and interactive method for the presentation of research findings Animation and sound can be used for increased emphasis.