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A Portrait of Québec Christopher Kirkey, Ph.D. Director

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Presentation on theme: "A Portrait of Québec Christopher Kirkey, Ph.D. Director"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Portrait of Québec Christopher Kirkey, Ph.D. Director
Center for the Study of Canada State University of New York College at Plattsburgh 133 Court Street, Plattsburgh, NY Tel: (518)


3 Summary of Presentation
Regionalism and the importance of Quebec Geography and People of the province Key historical and cultural markers: New France The Conquest La Survivance Quiet Revolution Language Teaching Resources



6 Immense territoire, pas de pétrole, de gaz et de charbon, QC 1/6 des USA en superficie






12 1. Middle Arctic Tundra      2. Low Arctic Tundra     3. Torngat Mountain Tundra      4. Eastern Canadian Shield Taiga      5. Southern Hudson Bay Taiga      6. Central Canadian Shield Forests      7. Eastern Canadian Forests       8. Eastern Forest/Boreal Transition      9. Eastern Great Lakes Lowland Forests      10. New England/Acadian Forests      11. Gulf of St. Lawrence Lowland Forest      



1. Bas-Saint-Laurent 2. Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean 3. Capitale-Nationale 4. Mauricie 5. Estrie 6. Région de Montréal 7. Outaouais 8. Abitibi-Témiscamingue 9. Côte-Nord 10. Nord-du-Québec 11. Gaspésie–Îles-de-la-Madeleine 12. Chaudière-Appalaches 13. Laval 14. Lanaudière 15. Laurentides 16. Montérégie 17. Centre-du-Québec


17 Mother tongue languages (2006)
Statistics Canada Language Greater Montreal Quebec Canada French 66.5% 80.1% 22.3% English 13.2% 8.6% 58.4% Italian 3.5% 1.8% 1.5% Arabic 3.1% 1.6% 0.9% Spanish 2.6% 1.2% Creole 1.3% 0.7% 0.2% Chinese 0.6% Greek 0.4% Portuguese 0.8% 0.5% Romanian 0.3% Vietnamese Russian Armenian 0.1% Polish

18 * Pour les années 1901 et 1911, les données portent sur l'origine ethnique.
Source: Recensement du Canada 1901, 1911, 1921, 1931, 1941, 1951, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006.

19 Important Historical Dates New France
1534 – Jacques Cartier lands at Gaspé and claims the area that will eventually become Canada for the King of France 1608 – Samuel de Champlain establishes permanent settlement at Quebec 1642 – Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve founds Montreal, then called Ville Marie 1759 – Battle of the Plains of Abraham; French defeated by the British

20 Cod fishing was done off-shore by men dressed to withstand the cold and the sea (fisherman in the center of the picture). Note fishermen on ship to the right, protected by a cocoon. Fish were stored on ship with layers of salt or were dried on shore.

21 Europeans believed that the beavers, like the bees, worked as an organized society. Note Niagara Falls.





26 Population of New France circa 1740 (by region)


28 Conquest Importance & Consequences
First world war fought on American soil England dominates North America Results in the development of two new countries Forms the basis for understanding Quebecois identity

29 Why France Lost Trade as most important factor in understanding global context: Furs or Sugar Geography: not enough people Population comparisons: New France: 60,000 versus New England : 1.5 million Military Strength: New France: 4,700 soldiers; 12,500 colonial militiamen New England: 24,300 soldiers; 900 colonial militiamen Control of the seas = control of the world England invested more than France in war

30 Important Historical Dates
1763 – Treaty of Paris signed by King of France cedes New France to Britain. Large influx of English, Irish, Scottish settlers. 1774 – Québec Act grants inhabitants to continue practicing Catholicism, speaking French and living by the French Napoleonic Civil Code 1791 – Constitutional Act divides Canada into 2 provinces: Upper Canada (eventually Ontario) with English-speaking majority and Lower Canada (eventually Quebec) with French speaking majority 1867 – British North America Act creates 4 Canadian provinces: Québec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia


32 Important Historical Dates
1960 –Quiet Revolution period of modernization begins. Major political and cultural reforms. 1974 – French becomes official language in province of Québec 1980 – Referendum: 60% reject sovereignty 1995 – 2nd Referendum: 50.5% reject sovereignty

33 Language Legislation 1961: Office de la langue française was created (Lesage) 1969: Bill 63 protected French language teaching in the province (Bertrand) 1974: Bill 22, The Official Language Act, made French the official language of government (Bourassa) 1977: Bill 101, officially known as the Charter of the French Language, made French the language of work, education, communication, trade, and business. French-language education was mandatory for immigrants regardless of whether French was their mother tongue (Levesque)

34 Concluding Remarks, Resources and Discussion


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