3Summary of Presentation Regionalism and the importance of QuebecGeography and People of the provinceKey historical and cultural markers:New FranceThe ConquestLa SurvivanceQuiet RevolutionLanguageTeaching Resources
17Mother tongue languages (2006) Statistics CanadaLanguageGreater MontrealQuebecCanadaFrench66.5%80.1%22.3%English13.2%8.6%58.4%Italian3.5%1.8%1.5%Arabic3.1%1.6%0.9%Spanish2.6%1.2%Creole1.3%0.7%0.2%Chinese0.6%Greek0.4%Portuguese0.8%0.5%Romanian0.3%VietnameseRussianArmenian0.1%Polish
18* Pour les années 1901 et 1911, les données portent sur l'origine ethnique. Source: Recensement du Canada 1901, 1911, 1921, 1931, 1941, 1951, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006.
19Important Historical Dates New France 1534 – Jacques Cartier lands at Gaspé and claims the area that will eventually become Canada for the King of France1608 – Samuel de Champlain establishes permanent settlement at Quebec1642 – Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve founds Montreal, then called Ville Marie1759 – Battle of the Plains of Abraham; French defeated by the British
20Cod fishing was done off-shore by men dressed to withstand the cold and the sea (fisherman in the center of the picture). Note fishermen on ship to the right, protected by a cocoon. Fish were stored on ship with layers of salt or were dried on shore.
21Europeans believed that the beavers, like the bees, worked as an organized society. Note Niagara Falls.
28Conquest Importance & Consequences First world war fought on American soilEngland dominates North AmericaResults in the development of two new countriesForms the basis for understanding Quebecois identity
29Why France LostTrade as most important factor in understanding global context: Furs or SugarGeography: not enough peoplePopulation comparisons: New France: 60,000 versus New England : 1.5 millionMilitary Strength: New France: 4,700 soldiers; 12,500 colonial militiamen New England: 24,300 soldiers; 900 colonial militiamenControl of the seas = control of the worldEngland invested more than France in war
30Important Historical Dates 1763 – Treaty of Paris signed by King of France cedes New France to Britain. Large influx of English, Irish, Scottish settlers.1774 – Québec Act grants inhabitants to continue practicing Catholicism, speaking French and living by the French Napoleonic Civil Code1791 – Constitutional Act divides Canada into 2 provinces: Upper Canada (eventually Ontario) with English-speaking majority and Lower Canada (eventually Quebec) with French speaking majority1867 – British North America Act creates 4 Canadian provinces: Québec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
32Important Historical Dates 1960 –Quiet Revolution period of modernization begins. Major political and cultural reforms.1974 – French becomes official language in province of Québec1980 – Referendum: 60% reject sovereignty1995 – 2nd Referendum: 50.5% reject sovereignty
33Language Legislation1961: Office de la langue française was created (Lesage)1969: Bill 63 protected French language teaching in the province (Bertrand)1974: Bill 22, The Official Language Act, made French the official language of government (Bourassa)1977: Bill 101, officially known as the Charter of the French Language, made French the language of work, education, communication, trade, and business. French-language education was mandatory for immigrants regardless of whether French was their mother tongue (Levesque)