2Sexual Reproduction Copy the following definition: Reproduction is the method by which the members of a species produce offspring. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two gametes (sex cells) during fertilisation.
10Genetics Notes Copy the definition below: Chromosomes are thread-like structures found inside the nucleus of every living cell. They contain genetic information which gives rise to an organisms characteristics.
11GeneticsThe number of chromosomes present in an organisms’ cells depends on its species.e.g Human Male46 Chromosomes
12GeneticsThe thread-like chromosomes are made of a chemical substance called DNA.DNA has two strands which form a twisted structure called a helix.DNA carries coded genetic information.Each piece of information is called a gene.
13Genetics Notes Copy the definition below: A gene is a section of a chromosome which contains a separate piece of genetic information.
14Genetics bases make up a strand of DNA. The order of the bases A A C T G C C G T A T GRows of four differentbases make up a strand of DNA.The order of the basesmakes the DNA code.Adenine (A)Thymine (T)Guanine (G)Cytosine (C)
15GeneticsA A C T G C C G T A T GThe genetic code found in genes gives the cells instructions to make protein molecules.The proteins produced have a variety of jobs e.g.structural (muscle tissue),controlling cell activities (enzymes)
16Genetics Notes Answer Tp167 Q2 in sentences. Label the cut-out and stick it in.
17GeneticsProtein molecules are made from combinations of 20 available amino acids, linked together in a long chain.The DNA molecule tells the cells which amino acids to use when making a specific protein.
18Genetics Three bases (e.g. ATG) carry the code for one amino acid. Each amino acid is different depending on the combination of bases (e.g. CGT, TGC, AAG etc)
19Genetics Amino acid Amino acid Amino acid Amino acid Protein molecule The amino acids are linked together to make a protein.The sequence of amino acids dictates the structure and function of the protein.
20Genetics Notes Complete the cut-out and stick it in. Answer Tp167 Q3. Use the passage ‘Proteins’ on Tp165 to make a note about the relationship between proteins present in a cell and an organism’s characteristics.Extension work: Success Guide p38-39.
21Fertilisation Mini Essay Describe how and where fertilisation occurs in a flowering plant.For Wednesday 15th December
23Gamete Production Notes Body cells have two matching sets of chromosomes. Gametes have one set of chromosomes.The reduction in number of chromosomes to a single set occurs during meiosis (gamete formation).
25Gamete Production Notes Copy these definitions:A chromatid is the name given to each single strand of a double chromosomeA centromere is part of a single chromosome. In double chromosomes, it holds the two chromatids together.
26Matching chromosomes pair. Gamete Mother cell.4 double chromosomes.Matching chromosomes pair.Line up across cellPairs separate.Cell divides.Chromosomes line up.Each cell divides again.Centromeres splitChromatids pulled apart4 gametes produced.
27Gamete Production Notes Answer Tp173 Q2+3 in sentences.
28Cell ready to divide again SpermMother cellEggCell ready to divide againSperm cellEgg cellMEIOSISZygoteFERTILISATION
30Sex Determination Notes Every normal body cell in a human being contains 46 chromosomes as 23 pairs.Of these, one pair makes up the sex chromosomes.Females have two large X chromosomes, while males have a large X and a small Y chromosome.
31Sex Determination Notes Complete and stick in the sex chromosomes cut-out.
32Gamete Production Note: In humans, each male gamete has an X or a Y chromosome, while each female gamete has an X chromosome.Now fill in the sex determination grid to work out the expected ratio of boys:girls.
33Gamete ProductionLook at Tp175 Q5 (you don’t need to write anything down – just think about the question.)
35Genes and Alleles NoteChromosomes are made up of smaller units called genes. Each gene is a unit of heredity that controls an inherited characteristic (e.g. wing type, hair texture, flower colour, etc.)
36Genes and Alleles NoteAlleles are different forms of a particular gene. At least two forms of each gene normally exist among the members of a species. For example in pea plants, the gene controlling flower colour can produce lilac or white coloured flowers.The alleles of a gene are found at the same location on each member of a pair of chromosomes.
37Genes and Alleles NoteUsing the green booklets, make notes on 6.7 section 2 only (The Segregation of Alleles)Read through 6.7 section 3Finally, attempt the check test for 6.7.