2 Navigation Acts - England tries to control trade: 1. All trade must be in English ships.2. Captain and crew must be English.3. Anything going to colonies must go through England.Glorious Revolution – William & Mary over through James II (Catholic) and restore Church of England. Control in colonies is loosened and power in the government is shifted to Parliament.Enlightenment – Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau All write of new ideas in government. We read them over here.
3 The French and Indian War Lasted from 1754 to 1763France and England (They called it the 7 Years War) Fought here and in EuropeDispute over landEFFECTSEconomic boom for coloniesForced the colonies to work togetherColonies would have to pay for protectionProclamation of 1763 – Kept colonists east of the Appalachian Mountains
5 CAUSES CAUSES FOUGHT FOR THE CONTROL OF NORTH AMERICA FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR OR SEVEN YEARS OF WARCAUSESCAUSESEnglish-French rivalry worldwide would erupt into a world war.England and the 13 Colonies fight together to defend their empire.War begins over land disputes in the Ohio ValleyAgainst the French, Indian allies and SpanishBritish want part of fur trade and the 2 openings into North AmericaFOUGHT FOR THE CONTROL OF NORTH AMERICAGeorge Washington starts this war5
6 French and Indian WarF/I War OhioOhio Valley river systems important to England and France….Both countries claimed these areas which were disputed….Both countries built forts to defend their land claims….
7 British concerned about French forts in Virginia territory. GEORGE WASHINGTONBritish concerned about French forts in Virginia territory.Send Washington, a major in the Virginia militia, to the Allegheny River Valley. Washington leads 300 men against the French at Fort Duquesne and kills over a 100 French.Along the way, Washington builds Fort Necessity. The fort falls to the French in a skirmish that will lead to the French and Indian War.A British statesman later wrote about Washington’s first skirmish: “The volley fired by a young Virginian in the backwoods of America set the world on fire.”
8 The Albany Plan Colonies rejected: not enough independence 1754: Albany Congress – convened by British, led by Franklin ~ 1st attempt at colonial unity ~ only 7 of 13 colonies therePurpose: keep Iroquois loyal, bolster defense against France through colonial unityFranklin sponsored plan for colonial home rule, unanimously adopted by delegatesColonies rejected: not enough independenceLondon rejected: too much independence
10 1755 Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in No. Amer. Gen. Edward Braddock --> evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia)Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia.Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces.Only Br. Success --> expelled France from Louisiana.
11 British-American Colonial Tensions ColonialsBritishMethods of Fighting:Indian-style guerilla tactics.March in formation or bayonet charge.Military Organization:Col. militias served under own captains.Br. officers wanted to control colonials.Military Discipline:No mil. deference or protocols observed.Drills & tough discipline.Finances:Resistance to rising taxes.Colonists should pay for own defense.Demeanor:Casual, non-professionals.Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
13 EFFECTS EFFECTS FOUGHT FOR THE CONTROL OF NORTH AMERICA FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR OR SEVEN YEARS OF WAREFFECTSEFFECTSColonists realize British are not invincible seek independence.French lose war and all land in North AmericaEnglish inherit vast new land holdings in North AmericaEngland sees responsibility to defend empire in North AmericaFOUGHT FOR THE CONTROL OF NORTH AMERICAGreat Britain accumulates huge war debtsKing George and Parliament tax the Colonies13
14 1763 Treaty of ParisFrance --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River.Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England.England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.
15 England gains Florida from Spain. F/I War 1763Treaty of Paris 1763England gains French land from Canada to Florida and Appalachians to the Mississippi River.England gains Florida from Spain.
16 Effects of the War on Britain? 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas.2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings.Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!
17 Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time.2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated.3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
18 Effects on Native Americans Effects on ColonistsPontiac’s RebellionsProclamation of 1763Effects on Native AmericansIron Workers, Shipbuilders and Farmers benefited from supplying the armyColonists gained confidence in their ability to work together for a common goal.Parliament would now be more strict on the coloniesColonists would have to pay taxes to pay for the warNatives Americans in the great lakes resisted being taken over by the BritishChief Pontiac united Native Americans in the Midwest to fight the BritishWar lasted several years until Pontiac signed a peace treaty in 1766British wanted to stop colonists from moving westHoped to end conflicts with the Native AmericansProclamation drew a line at the Appalachian MountainsLand west of the mountains was reserved for the Native AmericansMost Native Americans had supported the FrenchLoss weakened the tribesDespite the Proclamation settlers continued to take their land
19 Effects on ColonistsIron Workers, Shipbuilders and Farmers benefited from supplying the armyColonists gained confidence in their ability to work together for a common goal.Parliament would now be more strict on the coloniesColonists would have to pay taxes to pay for the war
20 Pontiac’s RebellionNatives Americans in the great lakes resisted being taken over by the BritishChief Pontiac united Native Americans in the Midwest to fight the BritishWar lasted several years until Pontiac signed a peace treaty in 1766
21 Proclamation of 1763 British wanted to stop colonists from moving west Hoped to end conflicts with the Native AmericansProclamation drew a line at the Appalachian MountainsLand west of the mountains was reserved for the Native Americans
22 Effects on Native Americans Most Native Americans had supported the FrenchLoss weakened the tribesDespite the Proclamation settlers continued to take their land