Presentation on theme: "Ancient Greek Theatre Background The Golden Age of Greece No empire/ city-states Between Persian and Peloponnesian Wars Prosperity and advancements in."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient Greek Theatre
Background The Golden Age of Greece No empire/ city-states Between Persian and Peloponnesian Wars Prosperity and advancements in politics, science, philosophy, art, and architecture. 510 BC 1 st democracy- free male citizens could vote (Athens)
Greece had slaves and women were subservient, but our American democracy, founded on the same ideals, had similar limitations. SO, lets put this into perspective!
In the U.S., what year was slavery abolished?
In the U.S., when were women given the right to vote?
Point Being… Having an established democracy for such a large portion of the population in 510BC is still admirable and impressive!
Science and Philosophy Advancements Pythagorus-Pythagorean theorem A 2 + B 2 = C 2 Hippocratic Oath-Hippocrates came up with oath doctors still take today. Socrates and Plato-great philosophers Architecture-Obviously-stood the test of time, also withstood manmade and natural disasters!
Theories of the Origin of Theatre
Aristotles Theory Theatre came from mans natural desire to imitate and communicate. Examples: children, Ook and Og
2. Rituals Many ways of viewing this theory-functionalists, structuralists, Darwinistic A ritual is a form of knowledge reflecting a societys understanding of the universe. Didactic-passing on traditions and knowledge expected to influence or control events used to glorify used to entertain or give pleasure All these functions can be served by theatre
Rituals Theatre and ritual employ same basic elements: music, dance, speech, masks, costumes, performers, audience and stage Whether it is ritual or theatre depends on our perception of the events function and our relationship to it
Other Minor Theories Storytelling; humans have a narrative instinct (related to Aristotle) Egyptian myths-Pyramid Texts- no evidence they were acted out or intended to be performed Egyptian religious ritual-no primary text survives to support Despite Egyptian theories-Theatre was never developed there beyond ritual!
3. Greek Religious Festivals honoring Dionysis-God of harvest wine, fertility
Greek Festival Theory-Aristotle- Drama (tragedy) 1. Dithyramb- lengthy hymn sung and danced by 50 men with one leader/narrator and the chorus sings the refrain BC- dithyramb became literary form-written down. 3. Arion-added spoken dramatic words to dithyramb from Lesbos, poet and harpist 4. Thespis-1 st actor, stepped out of chorus and delivered monologue (thespian=actor)
The City Dionysia-where drama was first presented
The City Festival Dionysia Festival honoring Dionysis-where theatre originated Lasted 7-14 days Wars ceased; political concerns ignored During festival everything CLOSED- even prisons Athens in Spring end of March Lenaia-Jan., Rural Dionysia-Dec. In Athens to commemorate Dionysus coming to Athens Tragedies added to festival in 534 BC Satyr play added in 501 BC Comedies added to festival in 486 BC
1-2 days of parades and sacrifices 2 days of dithyrambs- 1for choruses of boys and 1 for choruses of men 3 days of tragedies- 1 day for each author who would present a tetralogy (3 tragedies and a satyr) 1 day of comedies- 5 plays each by a different author A few days after festival, give awards for best play and best actor, and best playwright like our Oscars and Emmys and Tonys
Proagon-trailer for upcoming plays, actors would perform small section for public as advertisement Archon-person responsible for picking out plays 11 months before festival Choregus-producer, pick one playwright to sponsor for one year, paid all major expenses related to chorus: rehearsals, costumes, musicians, considered a form of paying taxes City provided theater space, awards and playwright and actors salaries Representative Body – judge and jury to anyone who behaved improperly during festival, elected Plays based on myths or legends that the people were already familiar with. Satyr play -a short comic piece making fun of tragic subjects by half-man, half- goat dressed actors
Ticket This ticket allowed people in to view the plays during the festival. The city paid for the tickets of the poor so EVERYONE could attend these religious festivals!
Tickets Pericles, ruler of Athens, established the Theoric Fund in 450 BC to assist those who were too poor to afford admission. entitled person to section, not seat tribes had own section and part of that was reserved for women Violence in the audience of the theatre was punishable by death!
Women attended festival because violence NEVER occurred onstage! (This is debated, but there are primary source references to women attending as well.)
Background Golden Age Advancements in many areas 510 B.C. first democracy!
Theories of the Origin of Theatre Aristotle said theatre came from mans natural desire to imitate and communicate. Rituals Came from Greek religious festival honoring Dionysis- dithyramb, literary form, Arion, Thespis.
City Festival Dionysia 7-14 days All closed Christmas equivalent Certain events on certain days Awards Different people had different jobs Women attended festival so NO violence in plays