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China The Worlds Leading Manufacturer of Chinese People.

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Presentation on theme: "China The Worlds Leading Manufacturer of Chinese People."— Presentation transcript:

1 China The Worlds Leading Manufacturer of Chinese People

2 Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Legitimacy Legitimacy –Dynastic Rule (ancient history – 1911) Power passed through hereditary connections Power passed through hereditary connections Mandate of Heaven – collective ancestral wisdom guiding the empire from the heavens Mandate of Heaven – collective ancestral wisdom guiding the empire from the heavens When a family dynasty was perceived as weak, a rival family would challenge, claiming the emperor had lost the mandate When a family dynasty was perceived as weak, a rival family would challenge, claiming the emperor had lost the mandate

3 Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Legitimacy Legitimacy –Revolution of 1911 and Chinese Republic Dynastic cycles toppled due to European intrusion Dynastic cycles toppled due to European intrusion Supposed to be democratic, but government was regularly challenged by regional warlords Supposed to be democratic, but government was regularly challenged by regional warlords –Mao and the Peoples Republic ( ) Mao Zedong and ideology of egalitarian Marxism Mao Zedong and ideology of egalitarian Marxism Mao himself served as the unifying source of legitimacy Mao himself served as the unifying source of legitimacy Maoism insisted on mass line – leaders must listen to and stay connected to peasants Maoism insisted on mass line – leaders must listen to and stay connected to peasants

4 Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Legitimacy Legitimacy –Modern China (1976-Present) Legitimacy centers in the Politburo of the CCP Legitimacy centers in the Politburo of the CCP Central Military Commission within the CCP controls the military (another important source of legitimacy) Central Military Commission within the CCP controls the military (another important source of legitimacy)

5 Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Historical Traditions Historical Traditions –Authoritarian Power – has always been ruled by a single emperor or a small group –Confucianism – emphasizes the importance of order and harmony, encourages Chinese people to submit to and obey authority Also places responsibility on rulers to exercise power conscientiously (democratic centralism?) Also places responsibility on rulers to exercise power conscientiously (democratic centralism?) Contradicts egalitarian Marxism Contradicts egalitarian Marxism

6 Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Historical Traditions Historical Traditions –Bureaucratic hierarchy based on scholarship – ruling elite are organized and selected based on academic exams Government jobs have always been highly coveted Government jobs have always been highly coveted Created social separation between peasants and bureaucratic elite Created social separation between peasants and bureaucratic elite –The Middle Kingdom – belief that China is the center of civilization, and foreigners are perceived as inferiors with nothing to offer

7 Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Historical Traditions Historical Traditions –Communist ideologies – Maoism integrated ethics of Confucianism with egalitarianism, later revised by Deng Xiaoping to allow for privatization

8 Political Culture Geography Geography –Access to oceans and warm water ports –Many large navigable rivers –Major geographic divides between north and south –Geographic isolation of the western part –Separated from other countries by mountain ranges, deserts, and oceans

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10 Political Culture Historical Eras Historical Eras –Dynastic Rule (Confucianism, ethnocentrism) –Resistance to Imperialism 19 th Century (nationalism) foreign devils – Europeans and Japanese who attempted to exploit Chinas natural resources foreign devils – Europeans and Japanese who attempted to exploit Chinas natural resources Evidence of caution and suspicion of capitalist countries remains Evidence of caution and suspicion of capitalist countries remains

11 Political Culture Historical Eras Historical Eras –Maoism (linked to Marxism/Leninism, but distinctly Chinese) Collectivism – good of the community above the individual Collectivism – good of the community above the individual Struggle and activism Struggle and activism Mass Line Mass Line Egalitarianism Egalitarianism Self-Reliance – dont rely on elites, use your own talents to contribute to your community Self-Reliance – dont rely on elites, use your own talents to contribute to your community

12 Mao Zedong Chairman of the CCP Chairman of the Central Military Commission

13 Political Culture Historical Eras Historical Eras –Deng Xiaoping Theory Black cat, white cat, who cares as long as it catches mice? Black cat, white cat, who cares as long as it catches mice? Communist and capitalist ideologies were not important Communist and capitalist ideologies were not important What matters is improving the economy What matters is improving the economy Still emphasizes party supervision and control of all activity in the country Still emphasizes party supervision and control of all activity in the country

14 Deng Xiaoping Chairman of the Central Military Commission

15 Political Culture Importance of Informal Relationships Importance of Informal Relationships –Power and respect is not necessarily tied to official position in the party, but who has connections to whom –Early connections established during the Long March built later ruling cliques –Patron-client system exists amongst competing party factions –Policy changes can be predicted with knowledge of relationships to past leaders

16 Political and Economic Change Long history of stability until 20 th century mirrors Russia Long history of stability until 20 th century mirrors Russia Differs from Russia in having a much longer history of regional hegemony Differs from Russia in having a much longer history of regional hegemony Dynastic cycles dictated change until Mongols conquer China in 13 th century Dynastic cycles dictated change until Mongols conquer China in 13 th century –Mandate of heaven recaptured by Ming dynasty –Last dynasty was Qing (pure) from 17 th century until it was toppled by European pressure in 20 th

17 Political and Economic Change Control by Imperialistic Nations Control by Imperialistic Nations –Qing dynasty weakened and China was carved into spheres of influence by England, Germany, France, and Japan (foreign devils) Revolutionary Upheaval ( ) Revolutionary Upheaval ( ) –Nationalism – Sun Yat-sen leads a nationalist revolution reestablishing independent China in 1911 –Establishment of a new political community Chiang Kai-shek founds the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang or KMT) Chiang Kai-shek founds the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang or KMT) Mao Zedong founds the CCP Mao Zedong founds the CCP –Socioeconomic Development – modeled after Soviets, then Chiang becomes president and breaks with them, outlawing the CCP

18 Chiang Kai-Shek Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China, , Director General of Kuomintang,

19 Political and Economic Change The Long March ( ) The Long March ( ) –Chiangs Nationalist army pursued Maos army across China to depose and exile communists –Mao eluded him and used the time traveling to spread his message to Chinese peasants –Mao becomes a national hero, people involved in the Long March become prominent in government of the Peoples Republic

20 Political and Economic Change Founding of the Peoples Republic of China ( ) Founding of the Peoples Republic of China ( ) –Occupied by Japan until end of WWII –Civil War between Kuomintang and CCP –Chiang flees to Taiwan, Mao establishes Peoples Republic on mainland, both claim to be the true government of China (Two Chinas)

21 Political and Economic Change Founding of the Peoples Republic of China ( ) Founding of the Peoples Republic of China ( ) –Soviet model of political/economic development ( ) Land reform – redistribution of property Land reform – redistribution of property Civil reform – attempted to end opium addiction and expand womens rights (like the right to leave an unhappy arranged marriage) Civil reform – attempted to end opium addiction and expand womens rights (like the right to leave an unhappy arranged marriage) Five-Year Plans – nationalization of industry and collectivization of agriculture Five-Year Plans – nationalization of industry and collectivization of agriculture

22 Political and Economic Change Founding of the Peoples Republic of China ( ) Founding of the Peoples Republic of China ( ) –Great Leap Forward ( ) Attempt to end Soviet domination of China Attempt to end Soviet domination of China All-around development of agriculture and industry All-around development of agriculture and industry Mass mobilization – turn the Chinese population into an asset through motivation and harder work Mass mobilization – turn the Chinese population into an asset through motivation and harder work Political unanimity and zeal – party workers began running government, not bureaucrats Political unanimity and zeal – party workers began running government, not bureaucrats –Cadres – low level party workers expected to demonstrate Party devotion by motivating hard work Decentralization – more local, less central control Decentralization – more local, less central control

23 Political and Economic Change The Cultural Revolution ( ) The Cultural Revolution ( ) –From , Mao allowed Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping to institute market reforms –Dissatisfied with results, decided to radically transform China and remove all vestiges of hierarchy and inequality –Principles Ethic of struggle Ethic of struggle Mass line Mass line Collectivism Collectivism Egalitarianism Egalitarianism Unstinting service to society Unstinting service to society –Destroyed universities and libraries, scholars were sent to the fields to work and learn from peasants –Elementary education designed to create equality and loyalty to Mao

24 Signs from the Cultural Revolution Destroy the Old World, Build a New World Destroy the Old World, Build a New World

25 Signs from the Cultural Revolution Let new socialistic culture conquer every stage Let new socialistic culture conquer every stage Features Jiang Qing, who led the Cultural Revolution Group of the Politburo Features Jiang Qing, who led the Cultural Revolution Group of the Politburo

26 Signs from the Cultural Revolution We will crash the dog heads of those who oppose Chairman Mao! We will crash the dog heads of those who oppose Chairman Mao!

27 Political and Economic Change Death of Mao (1976) Death of Mao (1976) –Followers in CCP divided into 3 factions Radicals – led by Maos wife Jiang Qing, continued supporting goals of Cultural Revolution Radicals – led by Maos wife Jiang Qing, continued supporting goals of Cultural Revolution –Gang of Four – group of radicals who controlled CCP policy toward the end of Maos life Military – had been led by Lin Biao, Maos designated successor, but he died in a mysterious plane crash in 1971 Military – had been led by Lin Biao, Maos designated successor, but he died in a mysterious plane crash in 1971 –Rumors of an attempted coup around same time Moderates – led by Zhou Enlai, emphasized economic modernization and limited contact with the West Moderates – led by Zhou Enlai, emphasized economic modernization and limited contact with the West –Factions were built on ideology and personal connection (guanxi)

28 Jiang Qing Jiang Qing –First Lady of the PRC, –Leader of the Radical faction of the CCP

29 Lin Biao Lin Biao –Vice-Premier of the PRC,

30 Zhou Enlai Zhou Enlai –Premier of the PRC, –Leader of the moderate faction of the CCP

31 Political and Economic Change Deng Xiaopings Four Modernizations ( ) Deng Xiaopings Four Modernizations ( ) –CCP leader Hua Guofeng arrests the Gang of Four radicals, opening the door for moderates to take control –Deng takes power in 1978 (without official title of Chairman of CCP), modernizing: Industry Industry Agriculture Agriculture Science Science The Military The Military

32 Political and Economic Change Deng Xiaopings Four Modernizations ( ) Deng Xiaopings Four Modernizations ( ) –Open Door trade policy – trade with everyone, including capitalist U.S. if it will benefit Chinese economy –Expansion of higher education, raised academic standards –Institutionalization of the Revolution – reconciled revolutionary goals with legal system and bureaucracy of Old China, decentralized government

33 Deng Xiaoping, later in life Cryptkeeper, (Just kidding)

34 Summary of Four Generations of Chinese Leadership 1 st Generation – Mao Zedong ( ) 1 st Generation – Mao Zedong ( ) 2 nd Generation – Deng Xiaoping (1978 – 1997) 2 nd Generation – Deng Xiaoping (1978 – 1997) 3 rd Generation – Jiang Zemin ( ) 3 rd Generation – Jiang Zemin ( ) 4 th Generation – Hu Jintao (2005 – Present) 4 th Generation – Hu Jintao (2005 – Present)

35 Jiang Zemin Jiang Zemin –President of the PRC, –General Secretary of the CCP, –Chairman of the Central Military Commission,

36 Hu Jintao Hu Jintao –President of the PRC, 2003-Present –General Secretary of the CCP, 2002–Present –Chairman of the Central Military Commission, 2004-Present –Orderly, struggle free succession indicated stability in CCP practices

37 Citizens, Society, and the State Cleavages Cleavages –Ethnicity Population is over 90% Han Chinese Population is over 90% Han Chinese Minorities live primarily in autonomous areas (like Tibet and Xinjiang) Minorities live primarily in autonomous areas (like Tibet and Xinjiang) –These areas are 60% of Chinese territory –Long history of resistance to Chinese government Tibetans – government never recognized Chinese government authority after conquest Tibetans – government never recognized Chinese government authority after conquest Uighurs – Muslim separatists in Xingjiang near Afghanistan Uighurs – Muslim separatists in Xingjiang near Afghanistan Government usually encourages economic development, while suppressing expression of dissent Government usually encourages economic development, while suppressing expression of dissent

38 Uighur Han Chinese Tibetan

39 Citizens, Society, and the State Cleavages Cleavages –Urban vs. Rural Redefinition of Two Chinas – differences in economic prosperity and lifestyle Redefinition of Two Chinas – differences in economic prosperity and lifestyle Declaration of Prime Minister Wen Jiabao of a new socialist countryside – program to lift rural economy Declaration of Prime Minister Wen Jiabao of a new socialist countryside – program to lift rural economy

40 Citizens, Society, and the State Political Participation Political Participation –The Chinese Communist Party Largest Party in the world, 58 million members (8% of people over 18) Largest Party in the world, 58 million members (8% of people over 18) CCP Youth League has 70 million members CCP Youth League has 70 million members Cadres of Mao have been replaced by technocrats under Dengs reforms Cadres of Mao have been replaced by technocrats under Dengs reforms –Technocrat – people with appropriate technical skills and training to work in bureaucracy Jiang opened party membership to capitalists to better represent all of China (2001) Jiang opened party membership to capitalists to better represent all of China (2001) Party is not ideological, but an instrument through which people can advance their personal situation Party is not ideological, but an instrument through which people can advance their personal situation

41 Citizens, Society, and the State Political Participation Political Participation –Civil Society Control of party has loosened with new technology (cell phones, internet, satellite dishes, etc.) Control of party has loosened with new technology (cell phones, internet, satellite dishes, etc.) Many new associational groups dedicated to individual issues springing up Many new associational groups dedicated to individual issues springing up –Ex. Environmental groups protesting dam construction Wont win, but still demonstrate ability to organize without government Wont win, but still demonstrate ability to organize without government Beijing allowed NGOs to register with government in 1990s Beijing allowed NGOs to register with government in 1990s Still closely watched by government (especially religious and human rights movements) Still closely watched by government (especially religious and human rights movements) –Ex. Falun Gong, banned in China

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43 Citizens, Society, and the State Political Participation Political Participation –Protests Allowed to an extent, but met with severe crackdown if the partys authority is called into question Allowed to an extent, but met with severe crackdown if the partys authority is called into question Tiananmen Square (1989) Tiananmen Square (1989) –Protest by students for democratic reform, eventually attracted many other civil society groups –Spread to many other areas of China than Beijing –Deng ordered Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) expel the protesters from the Square, resulting in massacre

44 Political Institutions CCP Organization CCP Organization –Hierarchical National National Province Province County County Village/Township Village/Township –Power concentrated at top in Politburo and General Secretary

45 National Party Congress -More than 2000 members -Chosen from lower level Congresses -Meets once every 5 years Central Committee -340 members -Meet once a year Politburo 24 members General Secretary Politburo Standing Committee 7 members

46 Political Institutions Other political parties Other political parties –Eight democratic parties are allowed to exist Each based on a special group, like intellectuals, businessmen, etc. Each based on a special group, like intellectuals, businessmen, etc. Total membership of half a million people Total membership of half a million people Serve an advisory role to CCP, non-oppositional Serve an advisory role to CCP, non-oppositional –Other attempts at independent party formation result in harsh prison sentences Elections (yes, elections) Elections (yes, elections) –CCP runs elections to help legitimacy –Party reviews candidate list to eliminate objectionable ones –Only held at local level of government, deputies for county Peoples Congresses, town and village officials (since 1980s)

47 Political Institutions The Political Elite The Political Elite –Personal connection, guanxi, holds politics together –Elite recruitment occurs through nomenklatura – higher party leaders choose leaders at lower levels to move up –Patron-client network throughout government

48 Political Institutions Factions within CCP Factions within CCP –Conservatives – believe power of government has eroded too much, support crackdowns on independent thinkers –Reformers/Open Door – support capitalist infusion, pushing for WTO membership and expansion of trade with U.S. Jiang, Hu, and Wen all come from this faction Jiang, Hu, and Wen all come from this faction –Liberals – support political liberalization, out of power since Tiananmen in 1989 Premier Zhao Ziyang ousted for sympathizing with protesters Premier Zhao Ziyang ousted for sympathizing with protesters –Fang-shou – cyclical tendency of factions to grow and fade in power, similar to dynastic cycles


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