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China 1949-Present. The Chinese Revolution 1945-49 1945-49 1911 Revolution overthrew the monarchy 1911 Revolution overthrew the monarchy May Fourth Movement.

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Presentation on theme: "China 1949-Present. The Chinese Revolution 1945-49 1945-49 1911 Revolution overthrew the monarchy 1911 Revolution overthrew the monarchy May Fourth Movement."— Presentation transcript:

1 China 1949-Present

2 The Chinese Revolution Revolution overthrew the monarchy 1911 Revolution overthrew the monarchy May Fourth Movement 1920s May Fourth Movement 1920s Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang(KMT) est. by Sun Yat Sen in 1916) Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang(KMT) est. by Sun Yat Sen in 1916) Chaing Kai-shek (KMT) comes to power in 1924 Chaing Kai-shek (KMT) comes to power in Nanking Decade Nanking Decade War with Japan War with Japan Civil War with the Communists Civil War with the Communists 1949 Communist China 1949 Communist China

3 Chaing Kai-shek Sun Yat-sen

4

5 China under Mao Zedong

6 Outline GMD-CCP Civil War ( ) GMD-CCP Civil War ( ) Recovery and Socialism ( ) Recovery and Socialism ( ) Rethinking the Soviet model ( ) Rethinking the Soviet model ( ) Great Leap Forward ( ) Great Leap Forward ( ) Recovery & growing elite division (1962-5) Recovery & growing elite division (1962-5) Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution ( ) Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution ( )

7 Anti-Japanese War ( )

8 Civil War (1946 – 1949) GMD: Guomindang (Nationalist Party) GMD: Guomindang (Nationalist Party) –Chiang Kai-shek (President) CCP: Chinese Communist Party CCP: Chinese Communist Party –Mao Zedong

9 War of Liberation

10 Mao Zedong A revolution to remove 3 big mountains A revolution to remove 3 big mountains –imperialism –feudalism –bureaucrat-capitalism A United Front of … A United Front of … –workers –peasants –petty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie

11 Peoples Republic of China , PRC, Beijing , PRC, Beijing Chairman: Mao Zedong Chairman: Mao Zedong 5-Star Red Flag 5-Star Red Flag Republic of China government retreated to Taiwan Republic of China government retreated to Taiwan

12 Economic Reconstruction 1950s Soviet Union model and assistance Soviet Union model and assistance land reform (eliminate landlord class) land reform (eliminate landlord class) heavy industry (state-owned enterprises) heavy industry (state-owned enterprises) First National Peoples Congress (1954) First National Peoples Congress (1954) –PRC Constitution Zhou Enlai Zhou Enlai –Premier –Foreign Minister

13 Great Leap Forward ( ) abandon the Soviet model of economic development abandon the Soviet model of economic development –Soviet scientific planning mass mobilization mass mobilization peoples communes peoples communes

14 Great Leap Forward ( ) unrealistic output targets unrealistic output targets –industry –agricultural and human disaster

15 Growing Division ( ) Mao Zedong vs. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping Mao Zedong vs. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping charismatic leadership vs. bureaucracy charismatic leadership vs. bureaucracy

16 Cultural Revolution ( ) Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution –commitment to revolution and class struggle –power struggle to succeed Mao Phase I: the rise and fall of red guards Phase I: the rise and fall of red guards Phase II: the rise and fall of Lin Biao Phase II: the rise and fall of Lin Biao Phase III: the rise and fall of the Gang of Four Phase III: the rise and fall of the Gang of Four

17 Phase I: Red Guards ( )

18 Purge of party cadres Purge of party cadres –Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping Purge of intellectuals Purge of intellectuals

19 Phase II: Lin Biao ( ) the putative successor to Mao Zedong the putative successor to Mao Zedong –the cult of personality around Mao In 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failed In 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failed –to assassinate Mao –to flee to Soviet Union (9.13) 9.13 eroded the credibility 9.13 eroded the credibility –of the entire leadership –of the Cultural Revolution

20 Phase III: the Gang of Four 1972 – – 1976 power struggle between power struggle between –the radical Gang of Four, led by Jiang Qing, Maos wife –the moderates, led by Premier Zhou Enlai

21 Diplomatic Breakthrough 1971, PRC became the representative of China in UN (replaced ROC) 1971, PRC became the representative of China in UN (replaced ROC)

22 Diplomatic Breakthrough 1972, President Nixon visited Beijing 1972, President Nixon visited Beijing

23 Mao and Zhou Died in 1976 Turning point in Chinas postwar era Turning point in Chinas postwar era Gang of Four were arrested Gang of Four were arrested End of the Cultural Revolution End of the Cultural Revolution

24 Maos legacies

25 Reforms and Opening up The 3rd Plenum of the 11th CCP Central Committee in 1978 The 3rd Plenum of the 11th CCP Central Committee in 1978 –Deng Xiaopings ascendancy –economic modernization became focus US-PRC diplomatic relations in 1979 US-PRC diplomatic relations in 1979

26 Tiananmen Square China China Student-led Chinese movement Student-led Chinese movement Attempted to use world wide attention to force reforms Attempted to use world wide attention to force reforms Internet Internet Crushed by the government Crushed by the government On global camera – viewed by the world On global camera – viewed by the world On global camera – viewed by the world On global camera – viewed by the world Leaders are now in exile Leaders are now in exile

27 Tiananmen Square


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