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Political Parties and Ideology What is a Party? Political Party – a group of people who seek to control government through the winning of elections and.

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Presentation on theme: "Political Parties and Ideology What is a Party? Political Party – a group of people who seek to control government through the winning of elections and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Political Parties and Ideology

3 What is a Party? Political Party – a group of people who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office Political Party – a group of people who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office Major Party – a party that manages to win control of government Major Party – a party that manages to win control of government

4 Major Parties There are two major parties in the U.S. Can you name them? There are two major parties in the U.S. Can you name them?

5 What is Ideology? Ideology is basically the way you look at how the world works Ideology is basically the way you look at how the world works There are two major ideologies in the United States There are two major ideologies in the United States – Liberal – Conservative

6 Liberal and Conservative People do not have to be strictly liberal on all issues, or conservative on all issues People do not have to be strictly liberal on all issues, or conservative on all issues You can mix the two to form your own individual ideology You can mix the two to form your own individual ideology

7 Liberal and Conservative Common Liberal Characteristics Common Liberal Characteristics –Desire progressive change in society –Concerned with protection of human and civil rights, equality –Examples: ACLU, Sierra Club, NAACP, NOW, labor unions, Dems.

8 Liberal and Conservative Common Liberal Issues Common Liberal Issues –Pro-choice –Affirmative Action –Gun control –Aid to the poor –Protecting the environment –Gay rights

9 Liberal and Conservative Common Conservative Characteristics Common Conservative Characteristics –Desire to keep things as they are, maintain the status-quo –Change should be cautious, slow –Concerned with stability and order in society –Desire to maintain moral values and traditions

10 Liberal and Conservative Common Conservative Issues Common Conservative Issues –Anti-abortion –Allowing prayer in schools –Cutting taxes –Cutting regulations on businesses –Immigration control –Increased military spending

11 Liberal and Conservative Often times, people hear what they want to hear from facts to support their ideology Often times, people hear what they want to hear from facts to support their ideology For example… For example…

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13 What Do Parties Do? Thats the easiest question youve asked all semester.

14 What Do Parties Do? Nominate Candidates Nominate Candidates Inform and Activate Supporters Inform and Activate Supporters The Bonding Agent Function – making sure that officeholders do a good job once they are elected The Bonding Agent Function – making sure that officeholders do a good job once they are elected Govern Govern Act as a Watchdog – criticizes the opposing party Act as a Watchdog – criticizes the opposing party

15 The Two-Party System The American political system is so developed and complex, that we choose the very finest candidates, right? The American political system is so developed and complex, that we choose the very finest candidates, right?

16 The Two-Party System So, why do we have a two party system? So, why do we have a two party system? –1. Historical Basis – remember the Federalists and Anti-Federalists? –2. Tradition – it has always been that way, so it naturally self- perpetuates

17 The Two-Party System 3. The American Ideological Consensus – for the most part, we pretty much agree on all of the major stuff 3. The American Ideological Consensus – for the most part, we pretty much agree on all of the major stuff –People should own property –We should have equality –People have the right to vote

18 The Two-Party System 4. The Electoral System – the U.S. uses single-member districts… that means only one person wins representation from each district 4. The Electoral System – the U.S. uses single-member districts… that means only one person wins representation from each district

19 Whats the Big Deal? The Italians are crazy. The Italians are crazy.

20 Multiparty Systems Several major parties, many lesser parties all compete for and win public office Several major parties, many lesser parties all compete for and win public office Mostly in Europe and South American Democracies Mostly in Europe and South American Democracies Many parties must form a coalition, or a group of parties that form a majority Many parties must form a coalition, or a group of parties that form a majority

21 One-Party Systems Found in dictatorships where only one party is allowed Red is the international color of communism: Cold War slogan, Better Dead than Red !

22 Party Membership Patterns Party membership is voluntary. Many change parties or go to an independent party… Party membership is voluntary. Many change parties or go to an independent party… Each party must try to attract as much $upport as po$$ible Each party must try to attract as much $upport as po$$ible Congressman Jeff Flake from U.S. Congressional District 6 Congressman Jeff Flake from U.S. Congressional District 6

23 Party Membership Patterns Some demographic groups are more reliable to each party, though these: Some demographic groups are more reliable to each party, though these: Tend to be Democrat – African Americans, Catholics, Jews, Union Members, Lower Income, Lower Education, Under 30, Over 60 Tend to be Democrat – African Americans, Catholics, Jews, Union Members, Lower Income, Lower Education, Under 30, Over 60

24 Party Membership Patterns Some demographic groups are more reliable to each party, though these: Some demographic groups are more reliable to each party, though these: Tend to be Republican – White, Protestant, Work in the Business Community, Higher Income, Higher Education, Middle-Aged Tend to be Republican – White, Protestant, Work in the Business Community, Higher Income, Higher Education, Middle-Aged

25 History of the Two-Party System The First Two Parties The First Two Parties – Federalists Founded by Alexander Hamilton (on your $10 bill…) Founded by Alexander Hamilton (on your $10 bill…) Believed in forming a strong national government, supported policies that favored bu$ine$$... Believed in forming a strong national government, supported policies that favored bu$ine$$... The business of America is business, said Calvin Coolidge The business of America is business, said Calvin Coolidge

26 History of the Two-Party System The First Two Parties The First Two Parties – Democratic-Republicans/Anti- Federalists Founded by Thomas Jefferson Founded by Thomas Jefferson Believed in limiting the federal governments power, and supported policies that benefited the common man Believed in limiting the federal governments power, and supported policies that benefited the common man

27 History of the Two-Party System Era of the Democrats ( ) Era of the Democrats ( ) – Democratic-Republicans had come to dominate politics, but then broke into two factions, the Democrats and Whigs – Democrats, led by Andrew Jackson, won most of the time over the Whigs

28 History of the Two-Party System Era of the Republicans ( ) Era of the Republicans ( ) – Began with election of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War – Republicans dominated elections due to support from businesses and African Americans – Democrats only won in the South

29 History of the Two-Party System The Return of the Democrats ( ) The Return of the Democrats ( ) – The Great Depression turned people against the Republican Party, especially as FDR led the U.S. out of the Depression. (Though it took many, many years…) – Dwight Eisenhower was the only Republican from this period

30 History of the Two-Party System Divided Government (1968-Present) Divided Government (1968-Present) – Nixons Watergate scandal has led people to distrust government – Characterized by different parties controlling Congress and the Presidency – Country is evenly divided (remember the 2000 election?)

31 Minor Parties Why run for election when you know you will lose? Why run for election when you know you will lose? – Act as the spoiler (Perot in 1992, Nader in 2000, ??? in 2012???)

32 Minor Parties Why run for election when you know you will lose? Why run for election when you know you will lose? – Make your issues public, get the major parties to adopt them

33 Minor Parties Why run for election when you know you will lose? Why run for election when you know you will lose? – Criticize the major parties (Thats basically all Ralph Nader does)

34 Types of Minor Parties Ideological Parties – based on a set of beliefs Ideological Parties – based on a set of beliefs – Tend to be long lasting – Have very little electoral success – Examples: Communist, Socialist, Libertarian

35 Types of Minor Parties Single-Issue Parties – concentrate on one public policy matter Single-Issue Parties – concentrate on one public policy matter – Name usually reflects their issue – Party dies after the issue fades or one of the major parties adopts their issue – Examples: Free Soil, Nativist, Right to Life, Prohibition

36 Types of Minor Parties Economic Protest Parties – arise during periods of poor economy, and express disgust with rallies/town halls, etc… Economic Protest Parties – arise during periods of poor economy, and express disgust with rallies/town halls, etc… – Usually sectional, drawing support from one region of the country – They invent an enemy of the economy and blame them – Examples: Greenback, Populist, Tea Party (party or ideology?)

37 Types of Minor Parties Splinter Parties – break away from one of the major parties Splinter Parties – break away from one of the major parties – Usually form around a strong personality (Teddy Roosevelt) – Typically have short-term electoral success – Fade away when the leader steps aside – Examples: Bull Moose, American Independent, Reform


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