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Political Parties and Ideology What is a Party? Political Party – a group of people who seek to control government through the winning of elections and.

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Political Parties and Ideology What is a Party? Political Party – a group of people who seek to control government through the winning of elections and.

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Presentation on theme: "Political Parties and Ideology What is a Party? Political Party – a group of people who seek to control government through the winning of elections and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Political Parties and Ideology

3 What is a Party? Political Party – a group of people who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office Political Party – a group of people who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office –Major Party – a party that has a chance to win representation in government –Minor Party – any political party that doesnt

4 Major Parties There are two major parties in the U.S. Can you name them? There are two major parties in the U.S. Can you name them?

5 What is Ideology? Ideology is basically the way you look at how the world works Ideology is basically the way you look at how the world works Ideologies tend to be grouped in the U.S. into 3 main categories Ideologies tend to be grouped in the U.S. into 3 main categories Liberal Moderate Conservative

6 What is Ideology? There are other fringe ideologies present as well (not as common) There are other fringe ideologies present as well (not as common) –Socialist (far left) –Marxist (far far left) –Libertarian (far right) –Religious fundamentalist (far far right) Liberal Moderate Conservative

7 Liberal and Conservative People do not have to be strictly liberal on all issues, or conservative on all issues People do not have to be strictly liberal on all issues, or conservative on all issues You can mix the two to form your own individual ideology You can mix the two to form your own individual ideology We group them because certain viewpoints tend to naturally go together We group them because certain viewpoints tend to naturally go together

8 Liberal and Conservative Common Liberal Characteristics Common Liberal Characteristics –Desire progressive change in society –Main values: Idealism, Equality, Fairness, Personal Freedom –Examples: ACLU, Sierra Club, NAACP, NOW, labor unions, Dems.

9 Liberal and Conservative Common Liberal Issue Stances Common Liberal Issue Stances –Pro-choice –Affirmative Action –Gun control –Progressive taxes (higher on rich) –Aid to the poor –Equal access to health care –Protecting the environment –Equal gay rights

10 Liberal and Conservative Common Conservative Characteristics Common Conservative Characteristics –Desire to keep things as they are, maintain the status-quo, change should be cautious and slow –Main values: Realism, Law and Order, Justice, Morality, Economic Freedom –Examples: Christian Coalition, NRA, Americans for Tax Reform, Republicans

11 Liberal and Conservative Common Conservative Issue Stances Common Conservative Issue Stances –Anti-abortion –Belief in private sector efficiency over the government –Free gun ownership rights –Cutting taxes, less progressive taxation –Cutting regulations on businesses –Immigration control –Increased military spending –Support traditional marriage

12 What Do Parties Do? Nominate Candidates Nominate Candidates Inform and Activate Supporters Inform and Activate Supporters The Bonding Agent Function – making sure that officeholders do a good job once they are elected The Bonding Agent Function – making sure that officeholders do a good job once they are elected Govern Govern Act as a Watchdog – criticizes the opposing party Act as a Watchdog – criticizes the opposing party

13 The Two-Party System Why do we have a two party system? Why do we have a two party system? –1. Historical Basis – division between Federalists and Anti- Federalists –2. Tradition – it has always been that way, so it naturally self- perpetuates

14 The Two-Party System 3. The American Ideological Consensus – for the most part, we pretty much agree on all of the major stuff 3. The American Ideological Consensus – for the most part, we pretty much agree on all of the major stuff –People should own property –We should have equality –People have the right to vote

15 The Two-Party System 4. The Electoral System – the U.S. uses single-member districts… that means only one person wins representation from each district 4. The Electoral System – the U.S. uses single-member districts… that means only one person wins representation from each district

16 Multiparty Systems Several major parties, many lesser parties all compete for and win public office Several major parties, many lesser parties all compete for and win public office Mostly in Europe and Latin American Democracies Mostly in Europe and Latin American Democracies Many parties must form a coalition, or a group of parties that form a majority Many parties must form a coalition, or a group of parties that form a majority

17 One-Party Systems Found in dictatorships where only one party is allowed Also found in places where one of the major parties has no chance of winning

18 Party Membership Patterns Party membership is voluntary Party membership is voluntary Each party must try to attract as much support as possible Each party must try to attract as much support as possible

19 Party Membership Patterns Some demographic groups are more reliable to each party, though Some demographic groups are more reliable to each party, though Tend to be Democrat – Female, African American, Hispanic, Catholic, Jewish, Union Member, Lower Income, Lower Education, Under 30, Over 60 Tend to be Democrat – Female, African American, Hispanic, Catholic, Jewish, Union Member, Lower Income, Lower Education, Under 30, Over 60

20 Party Membership Patterns Some demographic groups are more reliable to each party, though Some demographic groups are more reliable to each party, though Tend to be Republican – Male, White, Protestant, Work in the Business Community, Higher Income, Higher Education, Middle- Aged Tend to be Republican – Male, White, Protestant, Work in the Business Community, Higher Income, Higher Education, Middle- Aged

21 History of the Two-Party System The First Two Parties The First Two Parties – Federalists Founded by Alexander Hamilton Founded by Alexander Hamilton Believed in forming a strong national government, supported policies that favored business Believed in forming a strong national government, supported policies that favored business

22 History of the Two-Party System The First Two Parties The First Two Parties – Democratic-Republicans Founded by Thomas Jefferson Founded by Thomas Jefferson Believed in limiting the federal governments power, and supported policies that benefited the common man Believed in limiting the federal governments power, and supported policies that benefited the common man

23 History of the Two-Party System Era of the Democrats ( ) Era of the Democrats ( ) – Democratic-Republicans had come to dominate politics, but then broke into two factions, the Democrats and Whigs – Democrats, led by Andrew Jackson, won most of the time over the Whigs

24 History of the Two-Party System Era of the Republicans ( ) Era of the Republicans ( ) – Began with election of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War – Republicans dominated elections due to support from businesses and African Americans – Democrats only won in the South

25 History of the Two-Party System The Return of the Democrats ( ) The Return of the Democrats ( ) – The Great Depression turned people against the Republican Party, especially as FDR led the U.S. out of the Depression – Dwight Eisenhower was the only Republican from this period

26 History of the Two-Party System Divided Government (1968-Present) Divided Government (1968-Present) – Nixons Watergate scandal has led people to distrust government – Characterized by different parties controlling Congress and the Presidency – Country is evenly divided (remember the 2000 election?)

27 Minor Parties Why run for election when you know you will lose? Why run for election when you know you will lose? – Act as the spoiler (Perot in 1992, Nader in 2000)

28 Minor Parties Why run for election when you know you will lose? Why run for election when you know you will lose? – Make your issues public, get the major parties to adopt them

29 Minor Parties Why run for election when you know you will lose? Why run for election when you know you will lose? – Criticize the major parties (Thats basically all Nader does)

30 Types of Minor Parties Ideological Parties – based on a set of beliefs Ideological Parties – based on a set of beliefs – Tend to be long lasting – Have very little electoral success – Examples: Communist, Socialist, Libertarian

31 Types of Minor Parties Single-Issue Parties – concentrate on one public policy matter Single-Issue Parties – concentrate on one public policy matter – Name usually reflects their issue – Party dies after the issue fades or one of the major parties adopts their issue – Examples: Marijuana, Right to Life, Prohibition

32 Types of Minor Parties Economic Protest Parties – arise during periods of poor economy, and express disgust Economic Protest Parties – arise during periods of poor economy, and express disgust – Usually sectional, drawing support from one region of the country – They invent an enemy of the economy and blame them – Examples: America First, Populist

33 Types of Minor Parties Splinter Parties – break away from one of the major parties Splinter Parties – break away from one of the major parties – Usually form around a strong personality – Typically have short-term electoral success – Fade away when the leader steps aside – Examples: Bull Moose, American Independent, Reform

34 Chapter 7: Elections

35 Nominations – the First Step Before the election can take place, candidates must be nominated Before the election can take place, candidates must be nominated –This applies in ALL elections, not just presidential! Nomination – the naming of candidates who will seek office Nomination – the naming of candidates who will seek office After candidates are nominated, the general election is held After candidates are nominated, the general election is held

36 How Does a Candidate get Nominated? 4 Ways: 4 Ways: – Self Announcement – Convention – Caucus – Primary **To become a major party nominee for president, all 4 will be used**

37 Self-Announcement The candidate simply makes an announcement of his/her intention to seek public office (could have a friend do it, too) The candidate simply makes an announcement of his/her intention to seek public office (could have a friend do it, too) Ralph Nader, Independent candidate

38 Self-Announcement Usually an independent candidate or someone who failed to win a major party nomination Usually an independent candidate or someone who failed to win a major party nomination Ralph Nader, Independent candidate

39 Self-Announcement To get your name on the ballot generally requires a number of signatures on a petition (specifics are set by each state) To get your name on the ballot generally requires a number of signatures on a petition (specifics are set by each state) Ralph Nader, Independent candidate

40 Convention Public meeting of party activists to energize voters and choose a party candidate Public meeting of party activists to energize voters and choose a party candidate

41 Convention Used to be the method for major parties to choose, but the conventions became corrupt Used to be the method for major parties to choose, but the conventions became corrupt –Major parties still use them, but only to make the presidential nomination official

42 Convention Now only used by minor parties (like the Libertarian Party shown below) Now only used by minor parties (like the Libertarian Party shown below)

43 Caucus 1800s - originally a private meeting of party leaders – no records kept or journalists allowed 1800s - originally a private meeting of party leaders – no records kept or journalists allowed The appearance of corruption led to reforms The appearance of corruption led to reforms

44 Caucus Now - a public meeting of any party members who wish to participate and debate Now - a public meeting of any party members who wish to participate and debate

45 Primary A public election held within a political party to choose the partys nominee for office A public election held within a political party to choose the partys nominee for office – Open Primary – any eligible voters may vote – Closed Primary – only registered party members may vote in their partys primary Most common method in states today Most common method in states today


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