Presentation on theme: "Its a party !! Political Parties Chapter 5. Political Party = a group of persons, usually joined by common principles who attempt to control or influence."— Presentation transcript:
Political Party = a group of persons, usually joined by common principles who attempt to control or influence public policy by winning elections and holding public office
What do political parties do? What is their function? Informing and Activating Voters –giving voters a coherent public expression on public policy issues. –generating a community of like-minded people from a diverse community. –defining the public issues, creating a “public agenda” Providing candidates –recruiting people to run for office –formally nominating them to the ballot –conducting election campaigns –providing info to voters about candidates and policy
What do political parties do? What is their function? Acting as a link between government and public. Governing –provide a means of organizing government –formulate legislative programs –provide a system for legislators to advance their goals –provide members with “belonging & solidarity” –provide practical assistance to legislators –control the executive branch through the election of president and his appointment of staff partisanship partisanship: strong support of party and its “platform” (stand on issues)
Types of Political Parties “membership” parties –tightly organized –members may carry membership cards –ideological –possibly single-issue –may provide other social benefits broad-based parties –loosely organized –representing basic political ideas to which highly diverse elements of society may be attracted Communist Party Democratic and Republican Parties
Party Systems 1-Party –Communist Party –not a democratic system Multi-party or Parliamentary –strongly ideological –party “discipline” necessary for governance 2 –Party or “ Shared Powers ” –strong, broad-based but loosely organized –party “discipline” not needed for governance
Why do we have a 2 party system? tradition Federalists vs. Anti-federalists electoral system ideological consensus surrounding basic ideals of government
History of 2 Party System 4 major eras 1800-1860 Era of “Democrats”1800-1860 Era of “Democrats” ends with Civil Warends with Civil War 1860-1932 Era of Republicans1860-1932 Era of Republicans ends with Great Depressionends with Great Depression 1932-1968 Era of Democrats1932-1968 Era of Democrats ends with Vietnam, social upheaval/”Big Governmentends with Vietnam, social upheaval/”Big Government 1968-Present Era of Divided Government1968-Present Era of Divided Government
1800-1860 Era of “Democrats” 1800-1825 “Era of Good Feelings” »no organized opposition 1829-1837 Jacksonian Democrats small farmers, debtors, frontiersmen, slaveholders universal, white, male suffrage “spoils system” Opposition: “Whigs” (National Republican Party) –bankers, merchants, industrialists, plantation owners
1860-1932 Era of Republicans Abraham Lincoln – 1 st Republican President Generally support the issues of the North –laissez-faire –limited government (rise of Big Business) –gold standard –anti-slavery but not pro-civil rights –unresponsive to labor issues, small farmers Democratic Party fractured by the Civil War Populist Party, Socialists
1932-1968 Era of Democrats FDR and the New Deal –government can solve problems incorporates Progressivism –“social safety net” –coalition of minorities, the poor, labor, farmers African-Americans switched parties –culminates with LBJ’s “Great Society”
1968-Present: Era of Divided Government executive branch/legislative branch Republicans dominate the executive –Nixon –Ford –Reagan –Bush I –Bush II –Carter –Clinton –Obama Democrats have usually controlled Congress –exception: 1996 - 2007
Minor Parties A variety through history –ideological parties –Libertarian –Socialist/Communist –single-issue parties –Free Soil Party (anti-slavery) 1840s-1850s –“Know-Nothings” nativists 1840s-1850s –Prohibition Party –Right to Life Party –economic protest parties Greenback Party Populists –splinter Parties “Bull Moose” Progressives States’ Rights (Dixiecrats) American Independent Party (Wallace 1968)
Today The Green Party Libertarians Reform Party (Ross Perot) –America First 2 Socialist Parties in California –Natural Law Party –Peace and Freedom 2004 3rd parties vied in 765 of the 5,795 state legislative elections. 8 won.
extra credit* opportunity Research one of the current 3 rd parties –What is their platform? –Who are their major candidates? –What successes have they enjoyed? Where are they most successful? –Who is their targeted constituency? What type of people might vote for them? 8x11 mini-poster –informative –visually appealing –carefully constructed/detailed
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