Presentation on theme: "Logical Fallacies. What is a logical fallacy? A fallacy is an error of reasoning. These are flawed statements that often sound true Logical fallacies."— Presentation transcript:
What is a logical fallacy? A fallacy is an error of reasoning. These are flawed statements that often sound true Logical fallacies are often used to strengthen an argument, but if the reader detects them the argument can backfire, and damage the writers credibility
Origins The word fallacy may derive from the Latin word fallere meaning, to deceive, to trip, to lead into error or to trick. The word may also derive from the Greek phelos, meaning deceitful.
Why study logical fallacies? It is important to develop logical fallacy detection skills in your own writing, as well as others. Think of this as intellectual kung-fu: the art of intellectual self defense. (Logical Fallacies Handlist)
Logical Fallacies and Appeals Arguments that sound valid and reasonable until they are studied and analyzed.
Celebrity Appeal Other Names: Sex appeal- does not have to be a celebrity Transfer Definition: Using a celebrity or celebritys name as the sole proof of your point. Example: Taylor Swift drinks milk, so it must be the best drink ever!
Traditional Appeal Definition: Trying to prove your point by saying that people always believed in something particular. Example: People have used CDs for the last 15 years. Why should we change to downloading music?
Bandwagon Appeal Definition: Trying to prove something by suggesting that everyone is doing it. Example: Everyone is going to the party! Ill be the only one NOT there! or Everybody breaks the speed limit. Why should I have to slow down?
Emotional Appeal Definition: Appealing to peoples prejudice's or emotions. Example: If you donate money youll save this one-eyed, 3 legged puppys life (insert sappy music here).
Flag Waving Definition: Appealing to peoples feelings of patriotism. Example: Anyone who doesnt support the war effort is unAmerican
Inadequate proof Definition: Giving too few instances to prove your point Example: Marie ate at Taco Bell today. It must be her favorite place to eat.
Attacking the Source Other Names: Name calling Mud slinging Definition: Praising or blaming the source of your proof, and then ignoring the idea. Example: Hes a liberal; therefore hes a terrible teacher.
Circular Reasoning Definition: Attempting to prove something by repeatedly stating the point Example: All of us cannot be famous, because all of us cannot be well known. Jesse Jackson
Unreliable Authority Definition: Using an unqualified and unreliable source to support an idea. Example: My mom says that if we were to go to war, we would win easily.
Faulty Example Definition: Making a weak or untrue comparison. Example: My boyfriend is tall so he must be a great basketball player.
Irrelevant conclusion Definition: Drawing conclusions that do not follow from previous information. Example: The house across the street is for sale. The owners must have lost all their money gambling.
Guilt/ Innocence by Association Definition: Trying to prove guilt or innocence by associations with good or bad things. Example: Those kids all wear black clothes and hang out after 9 oclock at night. They must all have parole officers! or Mr. Doe cant be a child molester; hes a Sunday school teacher and a boys soccer coach.
Overgeneralization Definition: Letting one fact stand as the basis for a broad conclusion. Example: Because the aliens in Avatar are blue, all aliens must be blue.
False Cause Definition: Trying to prove that because something occurred after an event that thing is a result of the event. Example: It was raining the day I failed my test. Therefore, my failure was due to the weather.
Either –OR- Fallacy Definition: Stating your proof in either-or terms, excluding all other possibilities. Example: Either shes pretty or she has a nice personality. She cant have both.
Need for Objectivity Definition: Its important not to ignore information that contradicts your point. Example: Smoking cant be bad for us, because no tobacco company has ever been found guilty of wrongful death.