Presentation on theme: "Metals, Non-Metals, Metalloids, and Inner Transition Metals By Weiyi Li, Trent Davis, Alex Huddleston, and Lisa Thompson."— Presentation transcript:
Metals, Non-Metals, Metalloids, and Inner Transition Metals By Weiyi Li, Trent Davis, Alex Huddleston, and Lisa Thompson
Introduction Most of the periodic table is made up of metals. Metals are good conductors of electricity, while nonmetals are not. This is because the valence electrons of metals are not very attracted to its nucleus. Likewise, nonmetals are not good conductors because the electrons are very attracted to its nucleus. The effective nuclear charge of metals is less than the effective nuclear charge of nonmetals. Elements can either be metals, nonmetals, or metalloid. Most elements are metals. Metalloids are elements that have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals. Inner transition metals are also known as rare earth elements.
Introduction (Continued) The inner transition elements are the elements that are in the F-block of the periodic table. These are the lanthanides and the actinides, both of them fill the F-orbital. They are treated differently from the other transition metals. The Metallic character is the amount that an elements acts like a metal.
Descriptions Metals Have a small number of valence electrons The effective nuclear charge is rather low Electrons flow freely through Because of free flowing electrons, they are good conductors of energy Energy is defined as a heat and electricity When electrons leave, positive ions are formed Very malleable and ductile Electrons can flow around each other without breaking
Descriptions (Continued) Non-Metals Oxidation numbers +-4, -3,-2 Gas or other solids Not shiny Metalloids Properites of both Semi-conductors dconduct under special conditions Semi-conductors are silicon and germainium Used in computers and calculators Inner Transition Metals Very unstable 4f & 5d sublevels An element whose atom has a incomplete d sub-shell or which can give rise to cations with an incomplete d subshell
Exceptions in Periodic Trends One exception is hydrogen, whereas the rest of its group is metals. The attraction of hydrogens only electron towards its nucleus is very strong. But the rest of the elements of its group are metals. This is because hydrogen can lose an electron and become a proton. It can also gain an electron and become a hydride. However, the other metals of its group can only lose electrons. Boron is a metalloid instead of a metal, such as the rest of the elements of its group. This is because the outer electrons are much closer to its nucleus than the other elements of its group. Also, there arent as many atoms shielding the effective nuclear charge. Therefore,the electron is so attracted to the nucleus that it just difficult to lose, and therefore, is a metalloid.
Exceptions in Periodic Trends (Continued) Aluminum seems to belong as metalloid, but is instead, a metal. This is because the electrons arent as attracted the nucleus as the metalloids. Therefore, since the valence electrons of Aluminum are still very loose, it is a metal. The outermost electrons of Uuo are very loose to the nucleus. Therefore, it can lose the electrons as other metallic elements. The noble gasess outermost electrons have a strong attraction to its nucleus.