2 How does Electron Configuration relate to the Periodic Table? 21061413457234
3 Do Now Which statement is true? (use Periodic Table) Elements in the same column ↕ has same # of outer shell electronsElements in the same row ↔ has same # of outer shell electrons
4 Dmitri mendeleev (1869) Arrangement: Interesting observations: produced the first periodic table for the known 63 elementsArrangement:Increasing atomic masskept similar elements in a columnleft blanks for unknown elementsInteresting observations:Mendeleev predicted the properties of the missing elements.
10 Groups or familiesSame # of electrons in their outer orbitalShare similar chemical properties
11 Properties of Metals, Non-metals, & Metalloids Conducts heat & electricityDuctileMalleableLusterSolid at room temp. (except Hg)Forms cations (+)Non-Metal:BrittleS/l/g at room temp.Forms anions (-)MetalloidsSemi-conductorsProperties of nonmetals and metals
12 Metals, non-metals, & metalloids Note: Most elements are _________metals
13 Tour of the Periodic Table Main-group elementsAlso called representative elements (s- and p-blocks)E- config: regular & consistentGroup: same # of val. e-
14 Tour of the Periodic Table Inner Transition Metals
15 Alkali Metal (Group 1, except H) HydrogenMost common element in universecharge: 1+ or 1-Alkali Metal (Group 1, except H)Highly reactive with waterSoft and can be easily cutCharge:1+Alkaline-earth metal (Group 2)Less reactive than alkali metalsHarder than alkali metalsCharge: 2+
16 Transition metals (d-block) No identical valence electrons (charge varies)Less reactive than group 1 & 2Inner Transition metals (f-block)Nuclei are unstable – radioactive(charge varies)
17 Halogens (Group 17) Most reactive group of non-metals Likes to react with alkalis to produce saltscharge :1-
18 Noble gases (Group 18) Low chemical reactivity b/c very stable Outermost energy level is fullDoes not form ionsGlow brightly when an electric discharge is passed through them
19 Do now: Copy names into pg-2 Inner Transition Metals
20 Alkali Metals: Na loses 1 e- Formation of ionsOctet rule:atoms are most stable when they have 8 val. e-CATION: (+) ionsAlkali Metals: Na loses 1 e-1s22s22p63s s22s22p6(Na) (Na+)NeE- configBohr Diagram
22 As you look down a column, the outermost principle energy level __________________. (but the number of valence e-‘s stays the same) As more and more levels become filled with electrons, the nucleus becomes ______________ effective at attracting the outer electron(s). This is known as the “shielding effect.” (As you look down a column, even though the nucleus theoretically is stronger since it has more protons, it is NOT effective at holding onto the outer electrons.) Which energy level has NO shielding? ____________ Which atom holds onto the outer electron tighter, K or Rb? Why? ____ has one more filled level than ____ and therefore is _____ effective at holding onto the outermost (valence) electron.INCREASESLESS1RbKLESSPg-7
23 Is the shielding effect an issue with a row?_____ Row, Period , Series Val n=2 n= n= n= n=2 n= n= n=2energy level filled ____ ____ ____ ___ ___ ____ ___ ____LevelsThe energy level is not changing. What is changing?Is the nucleus getting stronger?_________. Is it effective?________In a row, ___________ ___________(and not shielding) determines the trend.NO2 b/c noble gas1111111# of electron & protonsYESYESNUCLEAR CHARGEPg-8
24 Recap: Column: the __________ _________ dictates the trends Recap: Column: the __________ _________ dictates the trends. Row: the increasing strength of the __________ dictates the trends.ELECTRON SHIELDINGNUCLEUS
25 Atomic Radius (pg-9) Distance from nucleus to outer electrons Bond radius = ½ distance between nuclei of adjacent atoms.
26 Atomic Radius Down a Group: Increases Reason: more energy levelsmore shieldingAcross a Period: DecreasesMore nuclear charge (+) pulls outer most e- closer to nucleus
27 Ionic radii (pg-9) positive lose smaller gain negative larger Metals tend to _________ electrons and become ____________ions. (gain or lose) positive or negative) ** (metal ions are ___________than metal atoms) (smaller or larger) Non- metals tend to _______ electrons and become __________ ions. (gain or lose) (positive or negative) ** (non-metal ions are ______________than non-metal atoms) (smaller or larger)smallergainnegativelarger
28 Ionization Energy (IE) – pg10 Energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion (form (+) ion).
29 Ionization Energy (IE) Down a Group: Decreases (easier to remove an electron)Reason:1. more energy levels (outermost electrons are farther from nucleus)2. more shielding (less attraction btw p+ & val. e-)Across a Period: Increases (harder to remove an electron)1. more nuclear charge, p+ ↑2. radius decreasesElectron-shielding remains the same
30 Circle the correction answer & answer the last 2 questions Ionization Energy pg-10Circle the correction answer & answer the last 2 questionsLower down in a column the atoms are larger / smaller and have more attractiveness / shielding so it is easier to remove an e- from the outer shell. It is harder/easier to remove an electron from a small atom with no shielding. It gets harder/easier to remove that electron as you move to the right as it approaches a perfect octet. Which column would be very difficult to go in and remove and electron from? Noble gases So the column with the highest Ionization Energy = Group # 18, Noble gases
32 #3 Electronegativity (pg-11) the attraction of an atom to a pair of electrons in a bond**EXCEPT NOBLE GASESFluorine has the highest value of “4.0”
33 Electronegativity (EN) Down a Group: Decreases (less attraction towards bonding e-)Reason:1. more energy levels2. more shieldingAcross a Period: Increases (more attraction towards bonding e-)1. radius decreases (val. e- closer to nucleus)2. nuclear charge increases, p+ ↑
34 Which column does NOT bond with any element (because it has a perfect Fluorine atom pulls harder on the shared pair of electrons. They are shared “unevenly”Electronegativity of Fluorine is > , = , < the electronegativity of hydrogenChlorine atoms share the pair of electrons “evenly”Electronegativity of Chlorine is > , = , < the electronegativity of ChlorineIn water, does Hydrogen or Oxygen pull harder on the shared pair of electrons? ____________Which column does NOT bond with any element (because it has a perfectoctet)? ____________________ (No electronegativity values are assigned)NOBLE GASES
35 MOLECULE/MOLE/MASS CONVERSIONS FOR DIATOMIC ELEMENTS Atomic mass: mass in grams = 1 mole of that element Example: 12 g C = 1 mol C Molecular mass: mass of a molecule = 1 mole of that molecule Example: 32 g O2 = 1 mol O2 Diatomic Elements (BrINClHOF): Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 H2 O2 F2 Elements found in pairs
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