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The Periodic Table.

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Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Periodic Table

2 Valence Electrons Valence electrons are the electrons that occupy the outside orbitals of the electron cloud. The highest energy level is equal to the period

3 Valence Electrons Group 1 has 1 valence electron
Group 2 has 2 valence electrons Groups 3-12 (transition metals) vary Group 13 has 3 valence electrons Group 14 has 4 valence electrons Group 15 has 5 valence electrons Group 16 has 6 valence electrons Group 17 has 7 valence electrons Group 18 has 8 valence electrons

4 Formation of Ions Ionization – The formation of an ion
Groups 1-14 elements make cations These ions ALWAYS have 0 valence electrons Groups elements make anions These ions ALWAYS have 8 valence electrons Group 18 elements (noble gases) don’t make ions because they already have 8 valence electrons The charge of an ion can be determined from the number of valence electrons 1 valence e- makes a +1 charge because it had to lose 1 electron to equal zero 6 valence e- makes a -2 charge because it had to gain 2 electrons to equal 8 4 valence e- makes either a +4 or a -4 charge, depending on the element

5 Formation of Ions

6 Properties of Groups Group 1 Alkali Metals: Most metallic and reactive group form +1 cations Group 2 Alkaline Earth metals: Very reactive group form +2 cations Block D Transition Metals: Semi-reactive form cations with different charges Block F Lanthanides and Actinides: Radioactive and extremely heavy metals Group 16 Chalcogens: Very reactive and electronegative form -2 anions Group 17 Halogens: Extremely reactive and electronegative group form -1 anions Group 18 Noble Gases: Completely unreactive because of complete valence shell

7 Types of Elements There are 3 types of elements: metals, metalloids and nonmetals 1) S, D and F block Metals: Malleable (can change shape without breaking), shiny, conducts electricity 2) P Block Metalloids: Show both metallic and non- metallic character. Metalloids touch the staircase of the periodic table 3) P Block Nonmetals: dull, brittle, and poor at conducting electricity because they hog electrons

8 History Mendeleev was the scientist responsible for seeing the pattern of properties of the elements in the periodic table he was the first to organize those elements into periods and groups. Elements within the same group have the same physical and chemical properties. When he organized his version of the table, there were holes in it because there were only 60 out of 110 known elements at the time. After he died, the holes were later filled by newly discovered elements, verifying what he knew to be correct: you can predict how an atom will behave by knowing where its atomic number falls on the periodic table. Periodic law – Both physical and chemical properties of the elements are functions of their atomic numbers.

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