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Languages in Contact contact languages Languages that develop as a result of contact between other languages Languages that develop as a result of contact.

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Presentation on theme: "Languages in Contact contact languages Languages that develop as a result of contact between other languages Languages that develop as a result of contact."— Presentation transcript:

1 Languages in Contact contact languages Languages that develop as a result of contact between other languages Languages that develop as a result of contact between other languages lingua franca, jargon, koine, pidgin, creole,constructed languages lingua franca, jargon, koine, pidgin, creole,constructed languages South East Asia – several examples South East Asia – several examples

2 PIDGIN Used for communication by non-native speakers Used for communication by non-native speakers Always a second language (restricted input) Always a second language (restricted input) Develop rapidly (and may die rapidly ) Develop rapidly (and may die rapidly ) Hundreds known – others not recorded Hundreds known – others not recorded

3 Features Simplified lexis, phonology, syntax, morphology Simplified lexis, phonology, syntax, morphology Example – Solomon Islands Pidgin Example – Solomon Islands Pidgin Mifela I-go go long solwater, lukoutim fish, now win I-kum. Now mifela I-go alabout long kinu now bigfela win I-kum now, mifela I-fafasi allabout rong tumus.

4 Example (?) – Korean Bamboo English Taksan years ago, skoshi Cinderella-san lived in hootchie with sisters. Poor little Cinderella-san ketchee no fun, have no social life. Aways washee-washee, scrubee- scrubee, make chop-chop. One day Cinderella-san ketchee post cardo from Seoul. Taksan years ago, skoshi Cinderella-san lived in hootchie with sisters. Poor little Cinderella-san ketchee no fun, have no social life. Aways washee-washee, scrubee- scrubee, make chop-chop. One day Cinderella-san ketchee post cardo from Seoul.

5 Superstrate and substrate Superstrate language provides vocabulary – socially dominant Superstrate language provides vocabulary – socially dominant may be relexified may be relexified Substrate languages may provide structure Substrate languages may provide structure (structure may also reflect universal features) (structure may also reflect universal features)

6 Continued Principal superstrate languages are English, Portuguese, Spanish, French, also Juba Arabic Principal superstrate languages are English, Portuguese, Spanish, French, also Juba Arabic Occasional equal languages -- Russonorsk Occasional equal languages -- Russonorsk

7 Background Most Pidgins are in Caribbean and Pacific Most Pidgins are in Caribbean and Pacific Also found in North America, Arctic, West Africa Also found in North America, Arctic, West Africa associated with any contact situation -- trade, slavery, plantations associated with any contact situation -- trade, slavery, plantations

8 Creoles A pidgin taught to children A pidgin taught to children Learnt as first language (with restricted input) Learnt as first language (with restricted input) Rapid development Rapid development Distinction between pidgins and creoles not always clear Distinction between pidgins and creoles not always clear Pidgin and creole variants of same language may coexist Pidgin and creole variants of same language may coexist

9 Example – Tok Pisin Dispela man i- stap naboutlong ples matmat na i kam. Em I save slip long ples matmat. Na I no gat wanpela man inap long pasim em. Sen ti I no inap. Plenti taim ol i bin pasim em long hankap na sen.

10 Continued More complex than pidgins but less so than superstrate and substrate languages More complex than pidgins but less so than superstrate and substrate languages Distinct languages, although speakers may not be aware of this Distinct languages, although speakers may not be aware of this Attitudes to Creoles vary – existence may be denied Attitudes to Creoles vary – existence may be denied

11 Continued Often despised, sometimes source of identity, occasionally national status Often despised, sometimes source of identity, occasionally national status post-creole continuum -creole is absorbed by superstrate language post-creole continuum -creole is absorbed by superstrate language In Caribbean may be several ways of saying one sentence In Caribbean may be several ways of saying one sentence

12 Creolisation Some languages may be simplified when learnt as a second languages Some languages may be simplified when learnt as a second languages Varieties of Malay – bazaar/market Malay, Jakarta Malay Varieties of Malay – bazaar/market Malay, Jakarta Malay Afrikaans -- simplified version of Dutch in South Africa Afrikaans -- simplified version of Dutch in South Africa Varieties of French in Indian Ocean Varieties of French in Indian Ocean

13 continued Also called semi-creoles or creoloids Also called semi-creoles or creoloids Suggested not preceded by creoles Suggested not preceded by creoles But maybe there was a brief period when a creole and before that a pidgin existed But maybe there was a brief period when a creole and before that a pidgin existed

14 continued Compare English with German and Dutch Compare English with German and Dutch Syntax and morphology much less complex Syntax and morphology much less complex At some point was English creolised? –I.e. learnt as a second language At some point was English creolised? –I.e. learnt as a second language

15 continued Alternative explanation – Middle English (1150-1450) is a post-creole developed from a creole which in turn developed from a pidgin Alternative explanation – Middle English (1150-1450) is a post-creole developed from a creole which in turn developed from a pidgin Very speculative Very speculative

16 continued Is it possible that languages may become creoles without going through a pidgin stage? Is it possible that languages may become creoles without going through a pidgin stage?

17 Features of pidgins and creoles Pidgins & creoles have common features limited morphology limited morphology loss of case loss of case Loss of gender Loss of gender Lexicalisation of gender Lexicalisation of gender Questions marked by intonation or lexis Questions marked by intonation or lexis

18 continued Absence of copula to be Absence of copula to be Preverbal negation Preverbal negation No tones No tones But creoles are closer to other languages But creoles are closer to other languages More complex syntax and morphology More complex syntax and morphology Expanded lexicon Expanded lexicon

19 Decreolisation Education in standard languages affects creoles Education in standard languages affects creoles Assimilated by standard languages – become dialects Assimilated by standard languages – become dialects Post-creole continuum in transitional societies Post-creole continuum in transitional societies Jamaica and Papua New Guinea – listen to Bob Marley and Panim Wok Band Jamaica and Papua New Guinea – listen to Bob Marley and Panim Wok Band

20 example Church Creole in Suriname – variety developed about 1780 for religious purposes – widely imitated Church Creole in Suriname – variety developed about 1780 for religious purposes – widely imitated Belly – Sranan – bere -- CC – bele Belly – Sranan – bere -- CC – bele Time -- te -- tem Time -- te -- tem Help helpi -- yepi Help helpi -- yepi

21 Recreolisation Afro-Caribbeans in England – adopt features of patois – but is it really recreolisation? Afro-Caribbeans in England – adopt features of patois – but is it really recreolisation?

22 Origins Monogenesis ? Monogenesis ? family tree model family tree model Sabir -- Italian based trade language Sabir -- Italian based trade language Portuguese relexification Portuguese relexification spread by traders and sailors spread by traders and sailors Further relexification Further relexification

23 continued Pidgins in West Africa (and then Caribbean) East Africa, India, Ceylon, S/SE Asia, Pacific, Arctic, N America Pidgins in West Africa (and then Caribbean) East Africa, India, Ceylon, S/SE Asia, Pacific, Arctic, N America Evidence -- Widespread lexis – saber – sibi in Crioulo, sabe in Krio and Bislama, Save in Tok Pisin, sabiam in Kamtok Evidence -- Widespread lexis – saber – sibi in Crioulo, sabe in Krio and Bislama, Save in Tok Pisin, sabiam in Kamtok

24 continued BUT BUT Many pidgins and creoles that had nothing to do with Portuguese Many pidgins and creoles that had nothing to do with Portuguese Turku – Arabic pidgin around Lake Chad Turku – Arabic pidgin around Lake Chad Sudanese Creole (Juba) Arabic – LF Southern Sudan Sudanese Creole (Juba) Arabic – LF Southern Sudan Nubi Arabic Creole in Kenya and Uganda Nubi Arabic Creole in Kenya and Uganda

25 continued African slaves drafted into Egyptian army in Sudan – joined British army in East Africa African slaves drafted into Egyptian army in Sudan – joined British army in East Africa Numbers in Nubi Arabic Creole Numbers in Nubi Arabic Creole Wai, tinin, talata, arba, khamsa, sita

26 Universlism each pidgin and creole develops independently each pidgin and creole develops independently common features are the result of a bioprogram (Bickerton) common features are the result of a bioprogram (Bickerton) Human mind is universal – so are pidgins and creoles Human mind is universal – so are pidgins and creoles Why not both? Why not both?


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