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Languages in Contact contact languages

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Presentation on theme: "Languages in Contact contact languages"— Presentation transcript:

1 Languages in Contact contact languages
Languages that develop as a result of contact between other languages lingua franca, jargon, koine, pidgin, creole,constructed languages South East Asia – several examples

2 PIDGIN Used for communication by non-native speakers
Always a second language (restricted input) Develop rapidly (and may die rapidly ) Hundreds known – others not recorded

3 Features Simplified lexis, phonology, syntax, morphology
Example – Solomon Islands Pidgin Mifela I-go go long solwater, lukoutim fish, now win I-kum. Now mifela I-go alabout long kinu now bigfela win I-kum now, mifela I-fafasi allabout rong tumus.

4 Example (?) – Korean Bamboo English
Taksan years ago, skoshi Cinderella-san lived in hootchie with sisters. Poor little Cinderella-san ketchee no fun, have no social life. Aways washee-washee, scrubee- scrubee, make chop-chop. One day Cinderella-san ketchee post cardo from Seoul.

5 Superstrate and substrate
Superstrate language provides vocabulary – socially dominant may be relexified Substrate languages may provide structure (structure may also reflect universal features)

6 Continued Principal superstrate languages are English, Portuguese, Spanish, French, also Juba Arabic Occasional equal languages -- Russonorsk

7 Background Most Pidgins are in Caribbean and Pacific
Also found in North America, Arctic, West Africa associated with any contact situation --trade, slavery, plantations

8 Creoles A pidgin taught to children
Learnt as first language (with restricted input) Rapid development Distinction between pidgins and creoles not always clear Pidgin and creole variants of same language may coexist

9 Example – Tok Pisin Dispela man i- stap naboutlong ples matmat na i kam. Em I save slip long ples matmat. Na I no gat wanpela man inap long pasim em. Sen ti I no inap. Plenti taim ol i bin pasim em long hankap na sen.

10 Continued More complex than pidgins but less so than superstrate and substrate languages Distinct languages, although speakers may not be aware of this Attitudes to Creoles vary – existence may be denied

11 Continued Often despised, sometimes source of identity, occasionally national status post-creole continuum -creole is absorbed by superstrate language In Caribbean may be several ways of saying one sentence

12 Creolisation Some languages may be simplified when learnt as a second languages Varieties of Malay – bazaar/market Malay, Jakarta Malay Afrikaans -- simplified version of Dutch in South Africa Varieties of French in Indian Ocean

13 continued Also called semi-creoles or creoloids
Suggested not preceded by creoles But maybe there was a brief period when a creole and before that a pidgin existed

14 continued Compare English with German and Dutch
Syntax and morphology much less complex At some point was English creolised? –I.e. learnt as a second language

15 continued Alternative explanation – Middle English ( ) is a post-creole developed from a creole which in turn developed from a pidgin Very speculative

16 continued Is it possible that languages may become creoles without going through a pidgin stage?

17 Features of pidgins and creoles
Pidgins & creoles have common features limited morphology loss of case Loss of gender Lexicalisation of gender Questions marked by intonation or lexis

18 continued Absence of copula “to be” Preverbal negation No tones
But creoles are closer to other languages More complex syntax and morphology Expanded lexicon

19 Decreolisation Education in standard languages affects creoles
Assimilated by standard languages – become dialects Post-creole continuum in transitional societies Jamaica and Papua New Guinea – listen to Bob Marley and Panim Wok Band

20 example Church Creole in Suriname – variety developed about 1780 for religious purposes – widely imitated Belly – Sranan – bere -- CC – bele Time te tem Help helpi yepi

21 Recreolisation Afro-Caribbeans in England – adopt features of patois – but is it really recreolisation?

22 Origins Monogenesis ? family tree model
Sabir -- Italian based trade language Portuguese relexification spread by traders and sailors Further relexification

23 continued Pidgins in West Africa (and then Caribbean) East Africa, India, Ceylon, S/SE Asia, Pacific, Arctic, N America Evidence -- Widespread lexis – saber – sibi in Crioulo, sabe in Krio and Bislama, Save in Tok Pisin, sabiam in Kamtok

24 continued BUT Many pidgins and creoles that had nothing to do with Portuguese Turku – Arabic pidgin around Lake Chad Sudanese Creole (Juba) Arabic – LF Southern Sudan Nubi Arabic Creole in Kenya and Uganda

25 continued African slaves drafted into Egyptian army in Sudan – joined British army in East Africa Numbers in Nubi Arabic Creole Wai, tinin, talata, arba, khamsa, sita

26 Universlism each pidgin and creole develops independently
common features are the result of a bioprogram (Bickerton) Human mind is universal – so are pidgins and creoles Why not both?

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