Presentation on theme: "Languages in Contact contact languages"— Presentation transcript:
1 Languages in Contact contact languages Languages that develop as a result of contact between other languageslingua franca, jargon, koine, pidgin, creole,constructed languagesSouth East Asia – several examples
2 PIDGIN Used for communication by non-native speakers Always a second language (restricted input)Develop rapidly (and may die rapidly )Hundreds known – others not recorded
3 Features Simplified lexis, phonology, syntax, morphology Example – Solomon Islands PidginMifela I-go go long solwater, lukoutim fish, now win I-kum. Now mifela I-go alabout long kinu now bigfela win I-kum now, mifela I-fafasi allabout rong tumus.
4 Example (?) – Korean Bamboo English Taksan years ago, skoshi Cinderella-san lived in hootchie with sisters. Poor little Cinderella-san ketchee no fun, have no social life. Aways washee-washee, scrubee- scrubee, make chop-chop. One day Cinderella-san ketchee post cardo from Seoul.
5 Superstrate and substrate Superstrate language provides vocabulary – socially dominantmay be relexifiedSubstrate languages may provide structure(structure may also reflect universal features)
6 ContinuedPrincipal superstrate languages are English, Portuguese, Spanish, French, also Juba ArabicOccasional equal languages -- Russonorsk
7 Background Most Pidgins are in Caribbean and Pacific Also found in North America, Arctic, West Africaassociated with any contact situation --trade, slavery, plantations
8 Creoles A pidgin taught to children Learnt as first language (with restricted input)Rapid developmentDistinction between pidgins and creoles not always clearPidgin and creole variants of same language may coexist
9 Example – Tok PisinDispela man i- stap naboutlong ples matmat na i kam. Em I save slip long ples matmat. Na I no gat wanpela man inap long pasim em. Sen ti I no inap. Plenti taim ol i bin pasim em long hankap na sen.
10 ContinuedMore complex than pidgins but less so than superstrate and substrate languagesDistinct languages, although speakers may not be aware of thisAttitudes to Creoles vary – existence may be denied
11 ContinuedOften despised, sometimes source of identity, occasionally national statuspost-creole continuum -creole is absorbed by superstrate languageIn Caribbean may be several ways of saying one sentence
12 CreolisationSome languages may be simplified when learnt as a second languagesVarieties of Malay – bazaar/market Malay, Jakarta MalayAfrikaans -- simplified version of Dutch in South AfricaVarieties of French in Indian Ocean
13 continued Also called semi-creoles or creoloids Suggested not preceded by creolesBut maybe there was a brief period when a creole and before that a pidgin existed
14 continued Compare English with German and Dutch Syntax and morphology much less complexAt some point was English creolised? –I.e. learnt as a second language
15 continuedAlternative explanation – Middle English ( ) is a post-creole developed from a creole which in turn developed from a pidginVery speculative
16 continuedIs it possible that languages may become creoles without going through a pidgin stage?
17 Features of pidgins and creoles Pidgins & creoles have common featureslimited morphologyloss of caseLoss of genderLexicalisation of genderQuestions marked by intonation or lexis
18 continued Absence of copula “to be” Preverbal negation No tones But creoles are closer to other languagesMore complex syntax and morphologyExpanded lexicon
19 Decreolisation Education in standard languages affects creoles Assimilated by standard languages – become dialectsPost-creole continuum in transitional societiesJamaica and Papua New Guinea – listen to Bob Marley and Panim Wok Band
20 exampleChurch Creole in Suriname – variety developed about 1780 for religious purposes – widely imitatedBelly – Sranan – bere -- CC – beleTime te temHelp helpi yepi
21 RecreolisationAfro-Caribbeans in England – adopt features of patois – but is it really recreolisation?
22 Origins Monogenesis ? family tree model Sabir -- Italian based trade languagePortuguese relexificationspread by traders and sailorsFurther relexification
23 continuedPidgins in West Africa (and then Caribbean) East Africa, India, Ceylon, S/SE Asia, Pacific, Arctic, N AmericaEvidence -- Widespread lexis – saber – sibi in Crioulo, sabe in Krio and Bislama, Save in Tok Pisin, sabiam in Kamtok
24 continuedBUTMany pidgins and creoles that had nothing to do with PortugueseTurku – Arabic pidgin around Lake ChadSudanese Creole (Juba) Arabic – LF Southern SudanNubi Arabic Creole in Kenya and Uganda
25 continuedAfrican slaves drafted into Egyptian army in Sudan – joined British army in East AfricaNumbers in Nubi Arabic CreoleWai, tinin, talata, arba, khamsa, sita
26 Universlism each pidgin and creole develops independently common features are the result of a bioprogram (Bickerton)Human mind is universal – so are pidgins and creolesWhy not both?