Presentation on theme: "Fifth Meeting Linguistic Varieties and Multilingual Nations."— Presentation transcript:
Fifth Meeting Linguistic Varieties and Multilingual Nations
Linguistic Varieties Vernacular Language Standard Language Lingua Franca Pidgin and Creole
Standard Language One which is written and has undergone some degree of regularisation or codification (e.g: in grammar, vocabulary,etc) Recognised as a prestigious variety or code by a comunity. Used for H functions alongside with a diversity of L varieties
Vernacular languages Refers to a language which has not been standardized and which does not have official status. An uncodified or unstandardized veriety It is acquired in the home as a first variety It is used for a relatively circumscribed function
Lingua Franca A language used for communication between people whose first laanguages differ. (An Indonesian and a Japanese communicate in English) In multilingual communities, lingua franca may eventually displace the vernacular. (Padangnese and Sundanese communicate in bahasa Indonesia). Lingua francas often develop initially as trade languages
Pidgin Pidgin develops as a means of communication between people who do not have a common language. Pidgin has no native speakers. When one group speaks a prestigious language, the prestige language tends to supply more of the vocabulary while vernacular language have more influence on the grammar of the developing pidgin. Pidgin is a variety of a language (e.g: english which is developed for some practical purposes such as trading among people who did not know each other’s language.
The Characteristics of Pidgin It is used in restricted domains and functions It has a simplified structure compared to the source language. It generally has low prestige and attracts negative attitudes – especially from outsiders. It has no native speakers.
Interesting features of Papua New Guinea Pidgin Bipo tru ingat – before, ingat haus – house Wanpela – one, fellow dispela – this fellow Liklik (little) bus - bush Nem – name wok - work Bilong - belong katim - cutting Taim – time palawut – fire wood Mama – papa (mother and father) ol – old. Retpela hat – red riding hood
Can you work out the pattern and fill in the gaps? Tok Pisin English gras grass gras grass mausgras moustache mausgras moustache gras bilong fes beard gras bilong fes beard gras bilong hed gras bilong hed gras antap long ai gras antap long ai gras nogut weed gras nogut weed
pisin bird pisin bird gras bilong pisin gras bilong pisin gras bilong pusi gras bilong pusi han hand han hand han bilong pisin han bilong pisin
Creole When pidgin develops beyond its role as a trade language and becomes the first language of a social community, it is called creole. Creole has native speakers A creole is a pidgin which has acquired native speakers.
Example of creole Tok Pisin English Tok Pisin English Bik big, large bikim to enlarge, make large Brait wide braitim to make wide, widen Daun low daunim to lower Nogut bad nogutim to spoil, damage Pret afraid pretim to frighten, scare Doti dirty dotim The use of suffix –im to form verb is similar to the use of suffix –en in English e.g: black – blacken; wide – widen; soft - soften
e.g of Australian Roper River Creole a.Im megim ginu he makes a canoe b.Im bin megim ginu he made a canoe c.Im megimbad ginu he is making a canoe d.Im bin mengimbad ginu he was making a canoe There are tenses in this creole just like the one in English and there are also verb forms like English V1, V-ing, V2. Pidgin may gradually become creole (but not always)
From Pidgin to Creole Pidgin is the result of two different languages used by two groups of people to communicate, automatically the vocabulary comes from both groups and as it is formed as the need for immediate communication,thus the rules are not well arranged. The language which supplies most of the vocabulary is known as the lexifier (superstrate) while the language which influence the grammatical structure are called the substrate.