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DOMESTIC VIOLENCE : THE MEASURED DOMESTIC VIOLENCE : THE MEASURED AND THE TO BE MEASURED Sunita Kishor (Ph.D.) Demographic and Health Research Macro International,

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Presentation on theme: "DOMESTIC VIOLENCE : THE MEASURED DOMESTIC VIOLENCE : THE MEASURED AND THE TO BE MEASURED Sunita Kishor (Ph.D.) Demographic and Health Research Macro International,"— Presentation transcript:

1 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE : THE MEASURED DOMESTIC VIOLENCE : THE MEASURED AND THE TO BE MEASURED Sunita Kishor (Ph.D.) Demographic and Health Research Macro International, Inc. Maryland, USA

2 Overview What we know ….and the data with which we know it (DHS examples) Lessons learned ….and the questions raised What we do not know

3 What is the DHS? Nationally-representative household surveys with large samples (typically ; India-100,000+) Nationally-representative household surveys with large samples (typically ; India-100,000+) Usually done every 5-7 years Usually done every 5-7 years Provide indicators for monitoring at the national and sometimes, sub-national level Provide indicators for monitoring at the national and sometimes, sub-national level Comparable across countries and over time Comparable across countries and over time Includes information in selected countries on domestic violence (27) and violence against men Includes information in selected countries on domestic violence (27) and violence against men Violence measurement in the DHS yields information on: prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of violence. Violence measurement in the DHS yields information on: prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of violence.

4 Defining what violence to measure Defining what violence to measure Ensuring validity of the measures: the how Ensuring validity of the measures: the how Ensuring safety and ethical standards Ensuring safety and ethical standards Determining what else to measure other than prevalence Determining what else to measure other than prevalence Measurement Challenges Measurement Challenges

5 History of violence measurement in the DHS Earliest efforts: –Country-specific questions (Colombia 1990 & 1995) –Questions developed and implemented as part of topic- specific studies 1993 Philippines Safe Motherhood Study 1995/96 Uganda Negotiating Reproductive Outcomes Study Egypt DHS as part of the womens status module Special efforts were made in the 1998 Nicaragua DHS –develop questions that increased the validity of the DV measure The current module –incorporates lessons from the Egypt and Nicaragua exercises –accompanied by guidelines adapted from WHO guidelines on its ethical implementation

6 Validity of Data No catch-all term to capture violence Recommendation: Ask about different types of violent acts separately, specifically, as in the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) Risk of underreporting of violence Recommendations: Build rapport, ensure privacy, provide multiple opportunities to reveal abuse

7 Forms of Spousal Violence: Definitions Physical violence Physical violence Any of the following acts of violence perpetrated by her husband: Pushed her, shook her, or threw something at her Slapped her Twisted her arm or pulled her hair Punched her Kicked her, dragged her, or beat her up Tried to choke her or burn her on purpose Threatened her or attacked her with a weapon

8 Forms of Spousal Violence: Definitions Sexual violence: Sexual violence: Any of the following: Forced her to have sexual intercourse when she did not want to Forced her to perform sexual acts she did not want to Emotional violence Emotional violence: Any of the following: Said or did something to humiliate her in front of others Threatened to hurt or harm her or someone close to her Insulted her to made her feel bad about herself

9 Violence by Others Physical violence by others From the time you were 15 years old has anyone (other than your current/last husband) hit, slapped, kicked, or done anything to hurt you physically? (Who?) Can include ex-husbands Violence during pregnancy also uses similar question (Who?) Can include current husbands Sexual violence at any time in life At any time in your life, as a child or as an adult, has anyone ever forced you in any way to have sexual intercourse or perform any other sexual acts? (Who and Age at first occurrence determined) Can include current husbands

10 Other Issues Examined Timing of initiation of spousal violence Injuries related to spousal violence Wives initiating spousal violence Data on known or potential correlates Help seeking by abused women

11 DHS domestic violence data in 27 countries Africa –Cameroon 2004 –DRC 2007* –Egypt 1995 & 2005 –Kenya 2003 –Liberia 2006/07* –Malawi 2004 –Mali 2006* –Namibia 2006* –Rwanda 2005 –South Africa 1998 –Uganda 2006 –Zambia 2001/02 –Zimbabwe 2005/06* Asia/South Asia –Bangladesh 2004 –Cambodia 2000 & 2005 –India 1998/99 & 2005/06 Latin America/Caribbean –Bolivia 2003 –Colombia 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 –Dominican Republic 2002 & 2007* –Haiti 2000 & 2005 –Honduras 2005 –Nicaragua1997/98 –Peru 2000 & 2004 Eurasia –Azerbaijan 2006* –Moldova 2005 –Turkmenistan 2001* –Ukraine 2007* * Data not yet available.

12 Spousal Violence: India Percent of ever-married women age Only 1% of married women have ever initiated violence have ever initiated violence against their husbands.

13 At what marital duration does spousal violence first occur? 87% of spousal violence initiated within 5 years of marriage Percent 87% of spousal violence initiated within 5 years of marriage India

14 Education and Spousal Violence: India Percent of ever-married women

15 What other factors are strongly associated with the likelihood of spousal violence? Percent of ever-married women India

16 What other factors are strongly associated with the likelihood of spousal violence? Percent of ever-married women India

17 Injuries Due to Spousal Violence Percent of women who have experienced spousal violence who had: India

18 What we do know… Spousal violence varies from about 14% in Cambodia to 59% in Uganda Typically, half or more of the women who have ever experienced spousal violence have experienced it in the past 12 months Spousal sexual violence experienced by 5-20% Physical violence most common form of violence Violence begins early in marriage Violence results in injuries Violence varies by education and wealth and has intergenerational effects However, not explained by alcohol or parental effects Further analysis of the data show that there are strong links to health outcomes for mothers and their children

19 Questions Arising from Lessons Learned How do we measure trends? Men, the CTS, and measurement of violence against women Should we be moving from measuring prevalence to measuring incidence?

20 Prevalence of Spousal Violence: Uganda 2006 Percent age 15-49

21 Consequences and Help Seeking: Uganda 2006 Percent of ever-married women/men who have experienced violence: who report injurieswho sought help

22 Men, the CTS, and measures of VAW Question raised: Are the instruments not able to distinguish the syndrome of violence against women from common couple violence? Answering this question is a challenge and in turn raises the following questions about measuring and defining violence: Is it important who initiates the violence? Should factors such as helplessness and fear be considered? Should the violent acts be made more specific? Should frequency be taken into account? Should the definition of violence be any act from the list or a clustering of acts?

23 For M &E: Prevalence or Incidence? AdvantagesDisadvantages Prevalence Def: Old + New cases ever or in a time period Already have measures Known to affect health Provides larger #s of cases for analysis Can measure change over longer periods of time Great for national level monitoring Easy to understand Tends to be static over the short period Largely descriptive Not good for evaluation and impact assessment Not useful for criminalizing violence Incidence Def: New cases in a time period Good for criminalizing violence Good for impact assessment May distinguish better between VAW and common couple violence Not used much in surveys May not be useful for long term monitoring May not yield enough cases for analysis Not likely to be stable across surveys and hence difficult to compare

24 Photo credits: Photos courtesy of M/MC Photoshare at jhuccp.org/mmc For Specific Questions:

25 measuredhs.com


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