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Gender based violence: Reflections from South Asia…… ….and whats it got to do with the Bank? Maitreyi Bordia Das (World Bank, SASDI) Kiersten Johnson (ORC.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender based violence: Reflections from South Asia…… ….and whats it got to do with the Bank? Maitreyi Bordia Das (World Bank, SASDI) Kiersten Johnson (ORC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender based violence: Reflections from South Asia…… ….and whats it got to do with the Bank? Maitreyi Bordia Das (World Bank, SASDI) Kiersten Johnson (ORC Macro)

2 GBV – a pervasive phenomenon across the region Very important in national discourses and the media. Very important in national discourses and the media. Bangladesh Bangladesh 2006 survey - 30 % of younger women (15-25 years) and 24 % of older women (45-60) report having ever experienced violence by their spouses survey - 30 % of younger women (15-25 years) and 24 % of older women (45-60) report having ever experienced violence by their spouses. 43% men in the same communities admit to having been violent to their spouses but in the DHS 75% men report ever having been violent to their wives 43% men in the same communities admit to having been violent to their spouses but in the DHS 75% men report ever having been violent to their wives Less than 50% women surveyed feel safe moving alone outside their own settlement. Less than 50% women surveyed feel safe moving alone outside their own settlement. Acid attacks in the news Acid attacks in the news Pakistan Pakistan 60 % of women feel unsafe moving alone outside their village or settlement 60 % of women feel unsafe moving alone outside their village or settlement In Afghanistan and Pakistan, there are continuing honor killings In Afghanistan and Pakistan, there are continuing honor killings India India 37.2% women report ever having experienced spousal violence (NFHS 2003) Dowry deaths Dowry deaths

3 But often deemed to be in the realm of advocacy …..and the Bank is concerned with policy …..and the Bank is concerned with policy Advocacy is seen by the Bank as the job of NGOs (and the womens movement) Advocacy is seen by the Bank as the job of NGOs (and the womens movement) Very often the agendas of the two are seen as contradictory by civil society Very often the agendas of the two are seen as contradictory by civil society

4 There is common ground between Bank & activist agendas Addressing GBV has both an intrinsic value and an instrumental value Addressing GBV has both an intrinsic value and an instrumental value Its instrumental value lies in the barriers it poses to human development and overall welfare of women and their families Its instrumental value lies in the barriers it poses to human development and overall welfare of women and their families Cost of violence can be high: Cost of violence can be high: –At the level of the individual and household –At the level of the village or neighborhood in terms of lack of security that impedes access to markets and services We will show evidence of the way that GBV plays out in terms of undesirable outcomes We will show evidence of the way that GBV plays out in terms of undesirable outcomes We will argue that the costs incurred by GBV are too high and too pervasive to ignore We will argue that the costs incurred by GBV are too high and too pervasive to ignore We will recommend that the Bank take the position that GBV is a core development issue and integrate action into its analytical and operational work We will recommend that the Bank take the position that GBV is a core development issue and integrate action into its analytical and operational work

5 Organization of the presentation Background: work on GBV in South Asia Background: work on GBV in South Asia Key question: What are the negative outcomes (and associated costs) of GBV in S. Asia on women and children's well-being and on access to markets Key question: What are the negative outcomes (and associated costs) of GBV in S. Asia on women and children's well-being and on access to markets Data & methods Data & methods Results emerging from Results emerging from –Individual level experience of violence –Community level perception of violence Conclusions and recommendations Conclusions and recommendations

6 Measuring prevalence of GBV is difficult… Privacy and ethics Privacy and ethics Shame (or machismo) Shame (or machismo) Qualitative v. quantitative Qualitative v. quantitative Who do you ask, in front of whom and what? Who do you ask, in front of whom and what? –Example: Mens and womens responses in Bangladesh – what are you catching? –What can filter questions do to recorded prevalence?

7 …but measuring costs is even more complicated The direction of causality is almost impossible to separate out statistically: The direction of causality is almost impossible to separate out statistically: –Is violence as a barrier to welfare (e.g.: accessing service and/or markets) or is it a result of welfare? –Whatever the direction of causality, many correlations are significant and not always in the direction we would expect Dependence on cross-sectional data contributes to difficulty in assessing costs Dependence on cross-sectional data contributes to difficulty in assessing costs Several studies have tried to impute costs Several studies have tried to impute costs

8 Key questions: What are the direct impacts of GBV that could translate into loss of productivity for individual women? What are the direct impacts of GBV that could translate into loss of productivity for individual women? What are the indirect impacts of GBV on children in affected households that result in economic loss? What are the indirect impacts of GBV on children in affected households that result in economic loss? Is perception of insecurity at the community level associated with restricted access to markets and services? Is perception of insecurity at the community level associated with restricted access to markets and services?

9 Direct Impacts of Gender-based Violence evidence from the DHS Individual-level

10 Data India NFHS India NFHS –Womens individual recode file Bangladesh 2004 DHS Bangladesh 2004 DHS –Couples file used, bringing in mens reports of violence and womens reports of outcomes

11 India: Injury results in loss of productivity Source: India NFHS (reported by women)

12 Bangladesh: Injury results in loss of productivity (Bangladesh 2004 DHS as reported by men)

13 Percent of women who received trained ANC for last birth by experience of spousal violence p=<0.000 p=<0.065

14 Bangladesh: Association between violence and womens ability to seek health care for themselves (2004 DHS - all p values at <0.05)

15 India: Association between violence and womens ability to seek health care for themselves ( NFHS – all p values at <0.000)

16 India: NFHS-3 shows significant relationships between individual level violence and HD outcomes When women experience spousal violence… When women experience spousal violence… Adjusted models show that odds of non-live birth are increased by 40 percent Adjusted models show that odds of non-live birth are increased by 40 percent Adjusted models show that odds of facility-based delivery are reduced by 13 percent Adjusted models show that odds of facility-based delivery are reduced by 13 percent (hx implications for both mother and newborn) Adjusted models show that odds of stunting among children under 5 are significantly increased Adjusted models show that odds of stunting among children under 5 are significantly increased Bivariate analysis indicates that children are significantly less likely to receive ORT when ill with diarrhea Bivariate analysis indicates that children are significantly less likely to receive ORT when ill with diarrhea

17 Perception of community level violence: Barrier to welfare? evidence from the Bangladesh Gender Norms Survey 2006

18 Perceptions of insecurity Do you feel safe going out in your village/outside your village in the day/at any time? Perceived insecurity could be an important factor in accessing markets, services and spaces

19 Important relationships Logistic regression models controlling for background characteristics, wealth quintile, education etc show the following statistically significant relationships: – –Accessing markets Women who do the household grocery shopping are also 1.6 times more likely than their counterparts to feel safe going out alone – –Decision-making Women who are consulted on major hh purchases are also 1.6 times more likely to feel safe going out alone – –Control over earnings (joint) Women who have control over their earnings are also 1.7 times more likely to feel safe going out alone Each of these outcome indicators is a proxy for ability to access markets/services/spaces

20 Conclusions There are issues of causality and methodological imperfections but with that caveat…… Gender based violence against individuals and community-level insecurity are associated with a number of negative outcomes for women and their families This is important for the Banks work on poverty and human development and has implications for the Banks policy engagement

21 So, where can the Bank add value? See violence as a core part of the development agenda See violence as a core part of the development agenda Integrate into operations Integrate into operations –HD sector – health, education and social protection programs –Livelihood and other CDD programs –Governance programs to focus on violence and insecurity Research and analysis Research and analysis –Integrate questions on violence into HH surveys –Understand associated costs more clearly

22 Thank you.

23 Figure 6.4


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