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Jerry Fishman NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) Huntsville, AL AAVSO – HEA3 - Las Cruces, NM - March.

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Presentation on theme: "Jerry Fishman NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) Huntsville, AL AAVSO – HEA3 - Las Cruces, NM - March."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jerry Fishman NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) Huntsville, AL AAVSO – HEA3 - Las Cruces, NM - March 21, 2005 GRBs – The Prompt Emission

2 GRBs – The Prompt Emission & Space-Borne Observations of GRBs A short history of observations Observable aspects of the prompt emission –Temporal aspects (time profiles) –Duration of prompt emission –Spectral properties of the gamma radiation GRB energy source – The Central Engine Conversion of energy into gamma rays Future observations

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4 Vela military satellites, 1963 Vela 4 – July 2, 1967: curious spike in gamma-ray detector readings First Gamma-Ray Burst was identified as an extra-terrestrial phenomenon 16 bursts in all between 1969 and 1972 Bursts coming from random directions in the sky GRBs baffled scientists, theorists began offering explanations An Accidental Discovery

5 GRB Roadblock - during the 1970s & 1980s Numerous observations with small spacecraft (primarily Russian & U.S.) No new, fundamental observations (except reports of gamma-ray line features) A Scientific Enigma Assumed to be Associated with Neutron Stars in the Galaxy Random nature frustrated observations

6 Compton GRO

7 Compton Gamma Ray Observatory April 5, 1991 – June 3, 2000 CGRO – four separate gamma-ray detection devices: EGRET, COMPTEL, OSSE, and BATSE 30 KeV – 30 GeV BATSE proved to be the most useful instrument for GRB detection

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9 The Breakthrough Observations -1997: Italian/Dutch Satellite Satellite - BeppoSAX Combined good GRB location with fast response Led to x-ray & optical afterglow observations The optical location, in turn, led to observations of host galaxies and redshift determinations

10 Beppo-SAX discovery of X-ray afterglow of a GRB

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12 Temporal aspects (time profiles) Duration of prompt emission Spectral properties of the gamma radiation The Prompt Gamma-Ray Emission

13 Diversity of GRB Profiles

14 Examples of Double-Peaked GRBs

15 Multiple-Episode Bursts

16 Distinct subclasses of –ray bursts: short/hard & long/soft Hard Spectra Softer Spectra 0.1 s20 s

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18 Prompt Optical Emission Observed with ROTSE: GRB990123, an intense GRB -An amazing feat that may not be repeated for some time -Fully automated, robotic telescope -Very wide FoV

19 ROTSE Cameras (4)

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21 Simultaneous Optical & Optical Observations of a GRB

22 Peaked at 9 th mag at 50 sec (z = 1.6) ROTSE I GRB

23 Typical GRB Spectrum – the Band function

24 Briggs, et al. 1999

25 Spectral Evolution of GRBs -from Crider, et al. 1997

26 Launched November 2004 Localizations 1' – 4' at 20 sec 5" at 1 – 2 min 0.3" at 3 – 4 min SWIFT

27 Swift Mission Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) –New CZT detectors –Detect ~300 GRBs per year –Most sensitive gamma-ray imager ever X-Ray Telescope (XRT) –Arcsecond GRB positions –CCD spectroscopy UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) –Sub-arcsecond imaging –Grism spectroscopy –24 th mag sensitivity (1000 sec) –Finding chart for other observers Autonomous re-pointing in sec Onboard and ground triggers Instruments

28 The Burst Alert Telescope on Swift

29 Some GRB Theories General Requirements: -A Compact Object is needed; Black Hole formation is usually invoked -Likely involves beamed emission from a highly relativistic jet -Emission degrades in succession: gamma- ray > X-ray > Optical > Radio -Role of magnetic field, its origin and its strength is under great debate

30 What is the trigger? The duration of the burst is determined by the viscous timescale of the accreting gas The duration of the burst is given by the fall-back time of the gas.

31 Collapsar Model Supermassive star burns off H, becomes Wolf-Rayet star with He, Fe core Core burned, star collapses and forms black hole with matter accretion jets Jets shatter outer shell of star, creates hypernova Jets speed on and collide with other nearby material to create the subsequent gamma-ray burst

32 Gamma Ray Bursts

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35 Merging Neutron Stars

36 Jets, Disks and Bursts from Coalescing Compact Binaries (Neutron Stars) Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz (IAS, Princeton) & Collaborators

37 The GLAST Spacecraft - to be Launched in 2007

38 GLAST Burst Monitor 12 NaI scintillation crystals - few keV to about one MeV 2 BGO scintillation crystals - about 150 keV to about 30 MeV Image provided by Gamma Ray Astronomy Team at MSFC

39 Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST)


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