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High Energy Astrophysics

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Presentation on theme: "High Energy Astrophysics"— Presentation transcript:

1 High Energy Astrophysics
- Detectors & Missions Dr. Gerald J. (Jerry) Fishman NASA – Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL USA July 4, 2002

2 High Energy Astrophysics
Usual Methods of Study: X-ray Astronomy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Cosmic Ray Astrophysics But Also: Radio, Optical, IR, … (And Two New Astronomies: Neutrino Astronomy Gravitational Astronomy )

3 Electromagnetic Spectrum / Temperature Scale

4 V.F. Hess (1883-1964) – Nobel Prize 1936
C.R. Discovery V.F. Hess ( ) – Nobel Prize 1936

5 X-ray & Gamma-Ray “Telescopes”
Collimator Coded Aperture Grazing Incidence Mirror Nothing (Un-collimated) . Aperture: Detector: CCD Proportional Counter Scintillation Detector .

6 Gamma-Ray “Telescopes” :
High-Energy Gamma-Ray “Telescopes” : - Compton Telescope - Pair-tracking Telescope - Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

7 High-Energy Photon Interactions - the Basis for all Detectors
Photoelectric Effect Compton Scattering Pair Production

8 Photoelectric Interaction
Photon knocks out a bound electron, losing all of its energy to the electron CCDs, Proportional Counters, Scintillation Detectors, . .

9 Scintillation Detectors, Compton Telescope
Compton Scattering Photon scatters off of an electron, losing part of its energy to the electron and continues in another direction Scintillation Detectors, Compton Telescope

10 Used in: Pair-tracking Telescope
Pair Production A very high energy electron interacts with matter and produces an electron-positron pair (E=mc2) Used in: Pair-tracking Telescope

11 UHURU (SAS-1) First X-ray Astronomy Satellite 1970-1974

12 High Energy Astronomy Observatory
HEAO Program: High Energy Astronomy Observatory - Had Observational Support from AAVSO

13 The Great Observatories (4) :
Hubble Space Telescope ~2010 Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory Chandra X-Ray Observatory ~2010 SIRTF (Space InfraRed Telescope Facility) ~2006 High Energy Missions

14 X-Ray Astronomy Collimated Detectors (Non-Focusing)
( - Primarily for sky surveys and timing studies) Timeframe Uhuru (SAS-1), ANS, Ariel-5, SAS-3, HEAO-A1, … s EXOSAT, WATCH/GRANAT, … 1980s BeppoSAX, Rossi-XTE s

15 Focusing X-Ray Optics

16 X-ray Astronomy (Focusing)
Einstein (HEAO-2) Currently in Orbit & Operational: CHANDRA XMM-Newton Future: XEUS Constellation-X

17 Constellation – X (Con-X)
Four identical satellites ~100x present sensitivity Launched singly or in pairs Extended truss in orbit

18 Constellation – X (Con-X)
Two Spacecraft in Atlas V Shroud


20 Constellation-X Sensitivity

21 XEUS The Xeus Mirror Spacecraft:

22 XEUS Two-Component S/C - flying in formation with Space Station

23 Gamma-Ray Astronomy – Future Developments CGRO
Hard X-rays & GRBs Nuclear H.E. Gammas (>20 MeV) BATSE OSSE COMPTEL EGRET HETE-2 SWIFT INTEGRAL Future: GLAST EXIST - Distant Future ACT Distant Future CGRO

24 SWIFT ~1000 GRBs studied over a three year period
arcsec positions for each GRB Multiwavelength observatory (gamma, X-ray, UV and optical) 20-70s reaction time Five times more sensitive than BATSE Spectroscopy from keV Six colors covering nm Capability to directly measure redshift GRB Positions publicly distributed within seconds


26 The INTEGRAL Mission Scheduled for Launch: Oct. 2002
Two Major Instruments: IBIS & SPIE Energy Range: 15 keV to 20 MeV

27 The SPIE Instrument on the INTEGRAL Spacecraft
Coded Aperture >> Coded Aperture >> Ge Detector Array >>


29 GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pair-Tracker Section >>
Scintillation Detector >>

30 GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)
Principal Investigator: Charles Meegan, MSFC No. Detectors: 14 NaI  (12)    5keV - 1 MeV BGO  (2)    150 keV - 30 MeV Un-collimated Scint. Detector Array

31 Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST)
Obscured AGNs GRBs out to z ~ (~20X BATSE; ~5X Swift sensitivity) All-sky imaging (5’ resolution; ~5-50”position) every 95min

32 Detector-collimator & Telescope
EXIST Side View Detector-collimator & Telescope

33 EUSO – Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays
Observed via optical emissions from above:


35 Neutrino Astronomy Large Amount of Material Needed
to Interact with and Detect Neutrinos


37 Gravitational Wave Astronomy
Space Ground LISA LIGO


39 LISA Mission LISA : Scientific Objectives LISA : Scientific Objectives LISA - Baseline, 3 S/C

40 X-ray Astronomy in Japan
Hakucho Tenma Ginga ASCA


42 The End


44 Back-up slides

45 Centaurus A

46 High Energy Astrophysics
- The study of objects and regions of space where the energy density is much greater than that of normal stars and galaxies Some Objects of HEA: Compact Objects* & Binary Systems Cosmic Rays Solar Flares AGNs GRBs, … * - BHs, Neutron stars, Strange stars

47 Gamma-Ray Astronomy - Evolution
Balloon Flights – Continuous Development of Instrumentation, Techniques & Initial Observations Early, Small Spacecraft: Explorer-11, SAS-3, COS-B Later, Major Spacecraft: HEAO-1, HEAO-3, GRANAT/SIGMA Compton GRO Hard X-rays & GRBs Nuclear H.E. Gammas (>20 MeV) BATSE OSSE COMPTEL EGRET

48 The IBIS Instrument on the INTEGRAL Spacecraft



51 Future Japanese X-ray Mission – ASTRO-E2
Astro-E lost at launch, Feb. 2000 Astro-E2 Planned for Feb. 2005 ~170 Layers of Nested X-ray Mirrors 4.5-meter Focal Length Three Major Instruments: X-ray Spectrometer X-ray Imaging Spectrometer Hard X-ray Imaging Detectors

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