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Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with Fermi-GBM G. J. Fishman 1, M. S. Briggs 2, and V. Connaughton 2 -for the GBM TGF Team 1 NASA-Marshall.

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Presentation on theme: "Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with Fermi-GBM G. J. Fishman 1, M. S. Briggs 2, and V. Connaughton 2 -for the GBM TGF Team 1 NASA-Marshall."— Presentation transcript:

1 Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with Fermi-GBM G. J. Fishman 1, M. S. Briggs 2, and V. Connaughton 2 -for the GBM TGF Team 1 NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL USA 2 Univ. Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL USA Thunderstorms and Elementary Particle Acceleration (TEPA 2010) Nor Amberd, Armenia 6-11 September 2010 ( -for TEPA Web site posting)

2 TGFs - Overview & Some New Results  History; Spacecraft observations  Observations from Fermi-GBM  Future Space Missions

3 Observations of TGFs with Four Spacecraft: I.BATSE /Compton Observatory: II.Solar Spectroscopic Imager III.AGILE Gamma-ray Telescope IV.Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (this talk)

4 I.Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) - Compton Observatory (CGRO)

5

6 BATSE TGFs:  Determined rough spectral properties (extremely energetic)  Associated with thunderstorms  Observed 78 in 9 years

7 TGFs from BATSE (showing saturation at ~300,000 cps)

8 II. RHESSI (Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) - Solar Observatory - Launched 2002; currently operational

9 Time Profiles of some RHESSI TGFs: RHESSI Observations of TGFs:  Doesn’t require trigger; all data are transmitted  Detected many more TGFs than BATSE, but they were much weaker  Determined very hard spectra (> 20 MeV)

10 SAA Region Hi Bkgnd - Low Sensitivity Region High Background, Low Sensitivity Region Map of RHESSI TGFs (820 events)

11 GLOBAL FLASH RATE – ANNUAL (from LIS-TRMM data) H. Christian et al.

12 Large CsI Scintillator Can Detect TGFs III. AGILE - Italian Gamma-ray Astronomy Satellite - 100kg Experiment - Launched: April 2007

13 Launched June 11, 2008 NASA Kennedy Space Center Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope IV. GBM (Gamma-ray Burst Monitor)

14 GBM Detector Locations on the Fermi Spacecraft – Launched June 2008 BGO Det. (1 of 2) NaI Det. (3 of 12)

15 GBM (Gamma-ray Burst Monitor) on the Fermi Observatory - Launched June 11, Primary Objective: GRBs Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

16 Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Sodium Iodide (NaI) Detectors (12) 1.27 cm thick 12.7 cm dia. 8 keV to 1 MeV

17 GBM Bismuth Germinate (BGO) Detectors (2) 12.7 cm thick 12.7 cm dia. 150 keV to 45 MeV

18 Gamma-ray Energy Chan. (~1 MeV max.) milliseconds (rel. to trigger time) TGF NaI Detectors (all 12 combined) “Overflow” Chan. (127)

19 MeV Spectral Differences TGF #1: Low energies dominate TGF #7: High energies dominate MeV

20 6 of the fastest TGFs Risetimes & Falltimes ~7 μs to 15 μs (4 μs per bin) (400 μs, total span}

21 Narrowest Pulse seen with GBM, ~ 50 μs Two Well-separated, Double-Pulse TGFs seen with GBM (all detectors summed)

22 Fermi – GBM Locations of 85 TGFs

23 TGF & Lightning are usually Simultaneous

24 How simultaneous? Distribution of GBM TGF peaks - WWLLN sferic peaks.

25 2 Exceptions: Of 15 associated sferics (5 ms, 300 km), 2 are not consistent with being simultaneous with the TGF pulse Difference: ~few ms. Lightning sferic TGF

26 TGF & Lightning - Summary Simultaneous, no preferred order GBM detects gamma-ray TGFs within 300 km of sub-spacecraft. We need other VLF data to explore shape, size of sferics (Duke, Stanford, LASA groups).

27 Triggered TGF Rate in GBM: ~1/mo., prior to 11 Nov ~8/mo., after “ “

28 Median TGF Pulse Duration = 0.11ms - Does not include 5 longer “electron” TGFs - Solid column – includes 10 possible un-resolved pulses Pulse Durations of First 50 GBM TGFs

29 Electron TGFs: No Storm in Region Below Spacecraft Below Spacecraft Geomagnetic Conjugate Region

30 Five “Electron” TGFs (in the first 50) Characteristics:  Longer than usual  Fast rise, then decaying  Some are not over thunderstorms

31 31 Long “Electron” TGF

32 August 2010 – Implemented “un-triggered” TGF capability Over selected “America’s Region”: - RHESSI TGFs - RHESSI TGFs, May-November est.: ~several TGFs per day in this Reion

33 First look at a GBM an Un-triggered TGF Binned Data 20μs/bin TGF Full-Width: ~0.25ms Total cts above bkgnd: ~35 cts Peak ct. rate: ~20kcps (Spectrum appears similar to strong TGFs)

34 TGFs – Major Observational Questions:  Altitude of origin?  Extent & volume of the emitting region?  Beaming properties of the emission?  What is the intensity distribution of TGFs ?  Are TGFs related to Gigantic Blue Jets ?

35 Plot by M. Briggs TGF #5, Individual Detectors, 0.1ms bins NaI (12) BGO (2)

36 TGF #1, Individual Detectors, 0.1ms bins

37 Time Profiles – All Detectors Combined Energies of Single Counts - BGO Detectors Only Properties of 10 Short TGF Pulses

38 Four Longer TGF Pulses (~1-3 ms) Time Profiles – All Detectors Combined Energies of Single Counts - BGO Detectors Only

39 Overlapping Double Pulses - 3 in the first 50 TGFs (~7 others are less obvious)

40 Overlapping Double Pulses - 3 in the first 50 TGFs (~7 others are less obvious)

41 NaI (12) BGO (2) TGF #1, Individual Detectors, 0.1ms bins

42 Plot by M. Briggs TGF #5, Individual Detectors, 0.1ms bins NaI (12) BGO (2)

43 Fermi – GBM Locations of 85 TGFs

44 GBM TGF Papers ➡ “First Results on Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor”, M. S. Briggs, et al., JGR ➡ “Associations between Fermi GBM Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes and sferics from the WWLLN”, V. Connaughton, et al., in press, JGR ➡ “Temporal Properties of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes from the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi Observatory”, G. J. Fishman, submitted to JGR ➡ “Positrons observed from Terrestrial Lightning with Fermi GBM”, M. S. Briggs, et al., in preparation Complete list of Huntsville Gamma-Ray Team Publications:

45 TGF Simulation - Courtesy J. Dwyer, Florida Tech. Gamma-rays (red); Electrons (blue) Altitude (km) Horizontal Distance (km)

46 Future Spacecraft to Study TGFs:  Firefly – NSF cubesat; GSFC; Siena College  ASIM – on ISS; ESA, led by Danish  TIRANIS – French & others  CHIBIS-M – Russian (IKI) & others

47 End


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