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Programme Interdépartemental P rogramme sur l A val du C ycle et l E nergie N ucléaire - Programme on the backend of the fuel cycle and on nuclear energy.

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Presentation on theme: "Programme Interdépartemental P rogramme sur l A val du C ycle et l E nergie N ucléaire - Programme on the backend of the fuel cycle and on nuclear energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Programme Interdépartemental P rogramme sur l A val du C ycle et l E nergie N ucléaire - Programme on the backend of the fuel cycle and on nuclear energy

2 The voice of CNRS in the field of nuclear energy must be enforced! an issue of societal dimension! Our credibility is not yet at the level of the perception of our competence.

3 CNRS - PACEN – Objectives, Organisation, Community I ) Strong implication in the support of the french strategy. –In 6 GNR (« groupement nationale de recherche ») with CEA, ANDRA, IRSN, BRGM, EDF, AREVA. II) Direct collaborations of the reserach laboratories with the actors of nuclear industry –GL ANDRA, contracts with industry III ) European collaboration of CNRS and Universities –7 th FWP/EURATOM –Member of european technology platforms SNE-TP and IGD-TP –Teaching: member of ENEN. IV) Science beyond the national strategy –4 Programmes Communs de Recherche : the PCRs in international collaboration : thorium fuel cycle, molten salt reactors, accelerators of protons and ADS, project MYRRHA, social sciences

4 PACEN Objectives : Mobilisation of the academic competences Three themes 1.Futur nuclear energy (Scenarios, futur reactors, recycling, transmutation, innovant materials) GNR GEDEPEON, PARIS, MATINEX – PCR APHIT, ANSF, GUTEC 2.Management of nuclear waste (Materials of confinement, nuclear waste disposal, environnemental questions) GNR FORPRO, TRASSE, PARIS, MOMAS, MATINEX – PCR GUTEC 3.Nuclear energy and society PCR ACSSON

5 The community of PACEN A large spectrum of scientific disciplines –Nuclear physics –Radiochemistry –Physical chemistry –Earth sciences –Mathematics –Engineering –Social sciences In total more than 100 groupes are mobilised in 250 projects in programmes with quadri-annual conventions –With >20 annual workshops often between many GNR, –> 50 PhD thesis –Project bi- or tri-party CNRS/CNRS, CNRS/University or engineering schools, –About 50% of the projects in bi-party CNRS/CEA for GEDEPEON, PARIS and MATINEX

6 New direction B. Grambow assisted by S. David, C.O. Bacri

7 How can the CNRS fullfill its mission to contribute with its research on nuclear energy and waste to societal decisions? Scientific approach to answer the questions of the laws n nuclear energy and wastes of 2005 and 2006

8 Fin 2012 2015 2020 2025 2050 2150 Report Separation/ transmutation Pilot: CEA Avances Treatement separation Separation: Ioniic liquids+ Molten salts Report ANDRA for public Debat Scenarios Optimisation energy Storage, disposal Transmutation ressources Contribution transmutation Faisability ADS, complementarity ASTRID/ADS Technological choices and criteria: FBR only or FBR+ADS Disposal or transmutation minor actinides Criteres: energy+risk actinides short/long term risk individuel/collectiv risk economie/ressources Decision Prototype FBR-Na Decision stockage Road-map vers ADS/RNR Decision management MA Begin Reversible disposal Construct FBR-Na prototype diposal cold? Irreversible disposal Interim storage? Irreversible disposal In reduced volume Interim storage for 2 nd site Faisability MSR/ thorium State of the Art disposal Decision prototype ADS Geosphere +reference volume Waste properties Calculation methods Nuclear materials: ceramics/metals Radionuclide migration Actions in Social sciences +nuclear energy International programmes MYRRAH etc. exploitation FBR-Na

9 Theme 1 of PACEN Futur nuclear energy (Scenarios, futur reactors, transmutation recycling, innovant materials) GEDEPEON – APHIT – ANSF - PARIS - MATINEX reactors accelerators molten salt reprocessing materials scenarios reactors ceramics metals

10 S. David,scénarios, aspects socioéconomiques, ressources, audition CNE 09 février 2011 10 Double strata Strategy UOX « light wastes »: PF + losses Pu+AM FBR or LWR Am+Cm+… Used MOX storage : Strategic stock Pu PF + losses Pu+Am+Cm+… Electrogen strata 89% of installed power Installed power 32 ADS of 400 MWth Concept ADS 400 MWth low power= large number of ADS gas : low power density= high inventory of minor actinides, studies of CNRS ADS Sodium 2-3 GW th : reduction of number of ADS and of AM inventory MYRRHA Experimental ADS demonstrator (57 MW th, k eff =0.95, MOX-PbBi) Flexible irradiation tool (fuel, materials, isotopes) Proton accelerator (600 MeV, 2.5-4 mA) (IPNO)

11 Double strata scenarios of transmutation of minor actinides using ADS Weakness of ADS scenarios: Important number of ADS-> costs Large inventory of minor AN Idea Increase beam intensity/energy Increase k eff Increase power density Increase irradiation time

12 Some evolutions in orientations Integrate the « risk dimension » in the approach additionally to that of « radiotoxicity » Integrate the project ASTRID of CEA and the complementarity with the ADS more strongly in our reflexions –Already today >10 projects on the subjet treated in GEDEPEON and MATINEX A synthetic report for mid-2012

13 Theme 2 of PACEN Management of nuclear waste (Matrices of confinement, geological disposal, environmental questions) FORPRO – TRASSE – PARIS - MOMAS - MATINEX geology transfers in interfaces calcul confinement environment waste matrices radionuclides

14 Disposal of nuclear waste Inventories of long-lived radionuclides require isolation for 100000 years for whatever reactor and fuel cycle scenario –Geological disposal is unavoidable –Geological disposal is best solution for fission products Transmutation is no solution for principal FP like 135 Cs, 137 Cs, 129 I –Feasability of disposal in clay is principally demonstrated : Clay barriers stable and tight, blocking water circulation Only slow diffusion over >10 5 yr allows mass transfer of a small fraction of soluble and mobile radionuclides to biosphere A principal result of radiochemistry: Actinides (carriers of toxicity) are immobile due to low solubility and strong sorption 36 Cl, 129 I and 79 Se are the principal carrier of long term risks form disposal

15 Relative toxicity Am241 Se79 Container biosphere EDZ argilite Waste matrix H2,CO2… calcaire… 1000 yr 10000 yr 100000 yr 1000000 yr Dissolution Solubilité 1E-9 M 500 m 70 m 2 m 1 m 0.3 m Sorption/diffusion 1E-13 M 3E14 2E4 0.02 1E11 8E7 1E-6 1E-5 0.1 8E7 0.02 Ion exclusion/diffusion 2E-10 M Relative toxicity (estimation) Se79 Am241 Relative radiotoxicity of water and waste related to limit of 0.25 mSv/an ANDRA 2005 Redox Se Recosy TRASSE FORPRO TRASSE SKIN PARIS MATINEX FORPRO NFPRO, MICADO PARIS 4E7 >1E-10

16 Theme 3 Nuclear energy and society Financing 100% CNRS ACCSON

17 S. David,scénarios, aspects socioéconomiques, ressources, audition CNE 09 février 2011 17 An original interdisciplinary work physics / economy / earth sciences A first result: whatever there resource of Uranium, there does not seem to be a real competition between the reactors of 3 rd and 4 th generation. It is the total demand which is changed, not the ratio Gen3 / Gen4. Aspects technico-économiques, ressources

18 Conclusions The CNRS is requested to contribute to the decisions in 2012 on the transmutation, on the public debate relative to geological disposal in 2013 and on the decisions on geological disposal in 2015 The mobilisation of physical and social sciences in an interdisciplinary manner provides a credible base line for an original approach We need to maintain and enforce the partenerships with the industrial groups We need to strengthen our capacity for synthesis: –Scenarios are the fundaments for our evaluations

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