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Nuclear Physics in Poland Part I: Experimental low energy nuclear physics.

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Presentation on theme: "Nuclear Physics in Poland Part I: Experimental low energy nuclear physics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nuclear Physics in Poland Part I: Experimental low energy nuclear physics

2 Maria Skłodowska-Curie 1867-1934...the ability to radiate does not depend on the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule but it is related instead to the interior of the atom... Discovery of POLONIUM and RADIUM 1898

3 1970 - IFJ Krakow – construction of the U-144 cyclotron Warsaw University – construction of the Warsaw Cyclotron – commisioning 1994 Warsaw University – cascade generator – ions of hundreds keV Stefan Batory University, Vilno – natural radioactivity; Ra source 1930s 1946 - 1955 Andrzej Sołtan Warsaw University – Andrzej Sołtan 1 MV cascade accelerator (1950) Jagiellonian University – Henryk Niewodniczański home built cyclotron U-48 (1956) 1955 - 1970 IBJ Swierk - Warsaw – reactor EWA (1958); MARIA (1968) IFJ Krakow – cyclotron U-120 (1958) Warsaw University – home built 3 MV Van de Graaff (1961)

4 14 27 IFJ PAN IF UJ Świerk 10 30 27 17 ZFJA UW ZSJ UW SLCJ UW IPJ scientists + engineers + PhD students 10 9 IF UŁ IF UŚ 145 Warszawa Łódź Katowice Kraków Świerk

5 Structure of exotic nuclei neutron-deficient nuclei neutron-rich nuclei evolution of single part. structure and collectivity light nuclei Nuclei under extreme conditions: excitation and decay of giant resonances light charged particle emission New symmetries and high spin structure in nuclei Nucleon-nucleon forces three-nucleon forces Superheavy nuclei fusion probabilities Dynamics of nucleus-nucleus collisions Double beta-decay; neutron decay - time reversal conservation Experiments are carried out at many nuclear physics facilities around the world and also at our home facility – at the Warsaw Cyclotron

6 ORNL Oak Ridge (USA) ANL Argonne (USA) Rochester (USA) MSU (USA) Canberra (Australia) Aarhus Liverpool Manchester GANIL Orsay Saclay Lyon Milano LNL LNS NBI Stockholm Uppsala Dubna St. Petersburg Jyvaskyla Kiev KVI Leuven Madrid Munchen PSI CERN Tokyo (Japan) GSI POLAND HMI FZ CRC Grenoble

7 User Facility: ~ 100 users per year national (80%) foreign (20%) Isochronous cyclotron diameter 200 cm ; K max = 160 in operation since 1994 ion source: ECR, 10 GHz beams: from B to Ar; energy range 2 – 10 MeV/nucl. ~ 3000 hours of beam time per year ~ 90% for nuclear physics experiments

8 large NaI(Tl) crystal multiplicity filter Si-ball - 12 triple Si telescopes JANOSIK CUDAC particle detector array 12 HPGe detectors with AC multiplicity filter Si-ball - 30 Si telescopes IC electron spectrometer OSIRIS II

9 ICARE 8 telescopes ΔE(gas) + E(Si) 24 telescopes ΔE(Si) + E(CsI) 16 telescopes ΔE(Si)+ΔE(Si)+E(CsI) WIGISOL Warsaw Ion Guide and Isotope Separator on Line Gas cell Beam Si detectors

10 Si – BALL SLCJ Warsaw University RFD Recoil Filter Detector IFJ PAN Krakow HECTOR IFJ PAN Krakow INFN Milano

11 A method to study peripheral neutron density - antiprotonic atoms (SLCJ UW Warsaw) A method to study the structure of neutron-rich nuclei -deep-inelastic reactions (IFJ PAN Krakow) A tool to process Coulex data - used worldwide - computer code GOSIA (SLCJ UW Warsaw)

12 Examples of results

13 Chiral bands in nuclei Collaboration led by the group from ZFJ, Warsaw University Experiments at the Warsaw Cyclotron, OSIRIS II Ge array

14 Structure of the lowest 0 + excitations in neutron-rich Mo nuclei Collaboration led by the Warsaw Coulex group, SLCJ, Warsaw University Experiments at the Warsaw Cyclotron, CUDAC particle detection system

15 Other results from the Warsaw Cyclotron: Fusion Barrier Distributions for the systems 20,22 Ne + 118 Sn, nat Ni Giant Dipole Radiation and Isospin Mixing in 44 Ti and 60 Zn Quadrupole Deformation of states in 14 C from 11 B+ 14 C Scattering PhD theses at the Warsaw Cyclotron: 4 completed 12 in progress

16 Two proton radioactivity Collaboration led by the group from ZSJ, Warsaw University Experiments at GSI

17 Nuclear periphery studied with antiprotonic atoms Collaboration led by the group from SLCJ, Warsaw Univ. Experiments at CERN protons neutrons neutron skinneutron halo 124 Sn

18 Y [a. u.] 05101520253035 E [MeV] Jacobi shape transitions in rapidly rotating nuclei Collaboration led by the group from IFJ PAN, Krakow Experiments in Strasbourg with EUROBALL Evolution of the equilibrium shape of 46 Ti 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 18 26 28 29 30 32 34 36 38 40 GDR strength function Spin LSD model: shape evolution Coriolis splitting

19 32 New magic number N=32 Collaboration led by the group from IFJ PAN, Krakow Experiments at Argonne National Lab. USA with GAMMASPHERE

20 Participation in large international collaborations

21 Kraków Warszawa Katowice Świerk Łódź 11 countries ZFJA UW SLCJ UW IFJ PAN IPJ AGATA A vanced Ga mma T racking A rray Commitments: Global level processing Data Analysis Ancillary Detectors 6 man-years

22 Kraków Warszawa Katowice Świerk Łódź R are IS otope IN vestigation at G SI 16 countries IFJ PAN IF UJ ZFJA UW SLCJ UW IPJ ZSJ UW Commitment: Contribution to the running cost of 7%

23 Kraków Warszawa Katowice Świerk Łódź ZSJ UW SLCJ UW ION Catcher 6 countries Development of a helium thermalisation gas cell Optimisation of an ion extraction at WIGISOL Effective Slowing- Down, Stopping in a Gas Cell and Extraction of Radioactive Ions IPJ

24 Kraków Warszawa Świerk Łódź IFJ PAN IF UJ ZFJA UW IF UŚ CHIMERA REVERSE ISOSPIN 7 countries Isospin effects in nucleus-nucleus collisions One-body vs. two- body dissipation mechanism Katowice


26 Kraków Warszawa Katowice Świerk Łódź FAIR at GSI FLAIR IFJ PAN IF UJ ZFJA UW ZSJ UW SLCJ UW IPJ Facility for Low Antiproton Ion Research

27 Optical Time Projection Chamber – OTPC a novel type of ionization chamber to obtain 3-dimensional topology of the two protons emitted from the 45 Fe ground state. (ZSJ Warsaw University) Gas detector using gas scintillation To be installed at the SHE detection system working at GANIL (IF Jagiellonian University)

28 Multidetector system TROLL A new initiative - a new multidectetcor system TROLL to study Electromagnetic Transition Probabilities in nuclei by combining the two methods: Coulomb Excitation Method Doppler Shift Attenuation and Recoil Distance Method TROLL would consist of: - 20-30 Ge ACS spectrometers - 60 BaF2 detectors as multiplicity filter - COULEX chamber with 50-110 P-i-N Silicon detectors - Si inner ball for proton and alpha muliplicity - few Ge polarimeters Presently available equipment amounts to about 2 million Euro About 300 - 400 thousand Euros is needed to complete the construction of TROLL.

29 Funding of low energy nuclear physics by the Ministry of Science: Research grants: ~100 thousand Euros/year International collaboration~70 thousand Euros/year Development of instrumentation~250 thousand Euros/year

30 We have research groups that carry out various studies at the frontiers of low energy nuclear physics in collaboration with most of the major laboratories in the world. We have a noticable experimental potential at home. We are involved in many large international collaborations. We have plans to develop new instrumentation at our labs. Young people !

31 A quote of Maria Sklodowska-Curie: A scientist in his laboratory is not a mere technician: he is also a child confronting natural phenomena that impress him as though they were fairy tales.

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