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Sustainability Home Audit Training for Community Care Workers

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainability Home Audit Training for Community Care Workers"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainability Home Audit Training for Community Care Workers
This project was funded by the Department of Sustainability and Environment

2 Notes to presenter Please refer to the guide for additional information. Some information will need updating, such as grants available, which change fairly regularly. Some information needs to be added, such as litres per person per day and waste per person in your area. Refer to the notes, which offer advise on where to source this information. We also suggest that if the audit form is going to be used to arrange further assistance for specific items e.g. maintenance staff to install retrofits, or showerheads to be arranged through the water retailers, that you add a slide about this just before the energy solutions slide. Due to copyright limitations many of the great photos that could be used to illustrate points cannot be included in this presentation. However, you might have access to suitable photos and we encourage you to include these into your presentations. A photo that illustrates a point is better than lots of words. Where we lack a suitable photo we have simply added a few words to illustrate the point, or to be a place holder for your photo or diagram. You will also note that we have tried to keep each slide to a separate topic. Bullet point lists such as this slide are boring and contain far to much information for a presentation. If you develop a slide like this one then the temptation is to read it word for word and the audience will have done that in the time you have said your first sentence and will know what your going to say for the rest of it Participants want to hear what you have to say not read lots off stuff off a slide. A handout is a better way to give detailed information. The information booklet and audit sheet form the handouts for this presentation. Delete this slide before giving your presentation! Good luck and have fun. If your having fun, then the participants are more likely too as well. Licensing arrangements This information pack is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. You are free to copy, communicate and adapt the work, so long as you attribute Environment Victoria and the use is for non commercial purposes. A copy of this licence is available at or by writing to Please note there are some instances where some of the material is not issued under the Creative Commons Licence. All logos are protected by copyright. Some of the photos and diagrams in this PowerPoint presentation are also protected – see the notes section of each slide for licensing details, or links to licensing details, of the images in that slide. Disclaimer Environment Victoria provides this training package as a guide. However, it cannot take responsibility or liability for any loss, damage or injury incurred as a result of the use of any of the information within this training package. We recommend that you obtain appropriate professional advice and assistance where necessary.

3 identifying possible solutions
why home audits identifying possible solutions Introduction Give an overview and context of why participants are here today and what they will be doing. Workshop is to give skills and knowledge on how to complete a simple home sustainability audit. Sustainability is about ensuring that we use resources as efficiently as possible. This training will enable them to do these audits with and/or for their clients. It will cover why we want to do the audits, how to complete the audits and what materials are provided to help, and finally, it will do a review of the solutions that are possibly useful for clients. Note to presenter: Also include details of how the decision was made to introduce the program, who is supporting it and the details of any partners or programs that the carers are going to link with (e.g. part of our climate change strategy, approved by council and senior managers, working with water authority to install low flow showerheads, maintenance staff also completing training and will offer support to carers)

4 background information
Why should we be doing sustainability audits? Note to presenters: This is to provide an overview of the general accepted issues. It is not trying to prove the link between greenhouse gases and climate change, etc. That debate is now past, with governments around the world moving beyond whether climate change is happening to what actions we can take to tackle the problem. There is also insufficient time in this workshop to debate climate change. If participants are keen to discuss this, suggest that they look at some of the great resources on this available in books and on the web. Besides environmental issues, house audit also benefit clients by cutting down on the cost of their bills.

5 energy issues There are a number of issues with the level of energy we currently use. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence.

6 92% Around 92% of the electricity produced in Victoria is from coal fired power stations. Coal, and especially the brown coal we use in Victoria, is one of the least climate-friendly ways of generating electricity. Photo is of Hazelwood power station and its coal mine. Reference (Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability. State of the Environment 2008 Summary. Melbourne: Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability, 2008, p. 23) Image source: In the public domain

7 Burning coal produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gasses
Burning coal produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gasses. Greenhouse gases are increasing in the atmosphere and like a blanket help trap additional heat. Trapping this extra heat is changing our climate. Image source: NASA, in the public domain Greenhouse Gases Photo: NASA

8 A changing climate is likely to mean more extreme weather events such as storms, cyclones, floods and bushfires. Besides floods, it’s also likely to mean drought (because the rainfall will be less frequent, but more intense). The less energy we use from unrenewable sources, the less greenhouse gases are produced and the less the climate will change. Image source: Photo: Longhorndave

9 rising energy prices Climate change is causing governments across the world to put a price on carbon that better reflects its environmental impact. Schemes like the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) are likely to increase the cost of electricity generated from unrenewable sources, like coal, and of unsustainably produced products. It makes sense to ensure that all of us, and especially people on low incomes, use energy as efficiently as possible to keep their bills as low as possible.

10 efficient use does not mean going without
Prices may be going up, but using less energy often just means using things smarter. For example low energy light globes last much longer than old light globes and use much less energy, which means that you can get just as much light for a fraction of the cost.

11 water issues One of the big issues Australia will face as the climate changes is water availabilty. We have been in drought in parts of Victoria for many years now, and climate predictions say that this is only going to get worse. Our dams are getting lower and lower and the rains to fill them fail to appear. We already take huge amounts of water out of our rivers, and just 21% of Victoria's rivers are in good condition. Photo source: Photo: Spiralz

12 However most of the water used in the home ends up down the plug hole, mixed with sewage. Fresh clean drinkable water is turned into sewage. Using water more efficiently means getting the most of the water in our households before it goes down the drain. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence.

13 166 litres per person per day
Note to presenters: This is the figure for Melbourne for 2007/08. You can find out your own local average use per person by contacting your local water authority or at Tell people how much water per person is used in their area. Not sure about that? Some simple calculations can get people to realise the water they use. Write them on the board. How much do you drink? How much would you use cooking? How many minutes do you spend in the shower? Times this by 9 litres if you have a water efficient showerhead, and by 15 litres if you don’t. How many times do you flush the toilet? Times this by 5 litres for full flush and by 3 litres for a half flush, and by 15 litres for an old single flush toilet. How many loads of dishes do you wash? Times this by say 20 litres. How many loads of washing do you do per week? Times this by say 80 litres, then divide by 7 to get average per day. If you add these up you will find that you use far more than you think. Everyone will be different and the figures given are estimates only due to the different types of showerheads, toilets, washing machines etc. Image source: in the public domain

14 Waste How much stuff to we chuck away? Lets find out.
But when we do it all this stuff goes to landfill. Out of sight and out of mind. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence.

15 Think for a moment: How long do we keep stuff that we buy?
Some stuff like furniture, cars and houses we keep for a long time. But lots of stuff we buy we keep for very short lengths of time. We use it once or use what is in it and then throw away the container. One estimate is that 99% of the stuff we buy is thrown away as waste within 6 months (www.thestoryofstuff.com) Image source: in the public domain

16 materials water energy products waste
Everything that we throw away took labour, time, money, energy, materials and often mining and water to create. Then more energy and resources were used to transport it to you. But we often throw things away soon after buying them, especially things like food and drink packaging. waste

17 And it very often ends up in landfill.
Imagine how ugly, noisy and smelly this landfill is. Image source: in the public domain Photo: Samuel Mann

18 192kg of waste per person per year
In Victoria in , 192 kilograms of rubbish was collected through kerbside collection for each person. This went to landfill. In addition 116 kilograms were collected in recycling bins and an average of 48 kilograms of green waste were collected (from councils with this service) Note to presenter: you can obtain local information through Or ask you council waste management staff for specific local figures.

19 leaching into groundwater
methane gas buried landfill Stops land being used for other purposes contaminates soil leaching into groundwater Some of the problems with landfill are: They take up a lot of space. Who wants to live near one? If there wasn’t a landfill, what are some other ways the land could be used? The rubbish produces methane gas, which is a greenhouse gas and is flammable. Lots of rubbish contains toxic chemicals which contaminate the soil. Especially things like computers and other electronic items. These chemicals also leach into underground water reserves. underground water

20 Smart consumption Again it is not about doing completely without.
It’s about smart purchasing and consumption. Smart consumption saves resources and money, and reduces environmental issues while not going without Companies will get the message when you spend your money on products that are produced smarter than others. Any questions so far?

21 Home Audits This is the detail that carers need to know. What they will have to do. Note to presenters: If you refer to the session plan you will notice that you could change the format of the training by moving this section to the end. The flow would then be why do something, what the solutions in the home are, then discussing the process which the carers will use. However we suggest that you leave this section where it currently is, to allay fears that the carers will have a large increase in their workloads. Our thinking is that if they understand what will be asked of them they can then put the solutions into the context of how they will use or recommend those solutions. Worrying about what it all means and how it fits in to their job might block their learning of the solutions, so by putting this first it can deal with those issues.

22 save clients $ maintain comfort protect environment
The plan is for carers to complete a simple home audit to try and address these problems. By using resources efficiently we can help reduce the cost to clients. We can still live comfortably if we are smart about our consumption. And by making changes, we help reduce the overall impact on the environment.

23 education One of the aims of the audit is to help educate people.
This process starts with this workshop. By helping you understand what can be done, you are then able to help others make changes. You can involve your clients in the audit. Explaining to them what you are doing. If that is not going to work for a particular client, you might be able to help the family or other supporters to understand the issues and possible solutions.

24 options There are lots of different options that might help a client.
Some are simple behaviour changes that cost no money, while others are items which could be purchased or installed. Help might be needed in achieving this.

25 Individual differences
One key thing to keep in mind is that one size does not fit all. Each individual client will have their own issues and possible solutions. It is important that the solution is tailored to the client’s needs. And that is where your expertise comes in. Once we have learnt about the solutions, you will most likely know what will work for which client. Using you knowledge you can therefore recommend the appropriate solution. And in some cases there might not be a solution at all and that is okay. The important thing is to have assessed the situation to determine if there are possible solutions.

26 action While education is very important it does not automatically translate into action. You need to know what to do first, but then you need to put that knowledge into action. Many people need help or encouragement at this stage. ‘But I have always done this’ is something that is heard a lot. People get into habits so you cannot expect these habits to disappear just by educating people. Once motivated to change, people need to think about their actions and be reminded. It is important then to help people take action. This might be gentle reminders, setting up systems to make it easy to do the correct thing (e.g. recycling box inside) or arranging to get the leaking taps fixed.

27 The information booklet
There are a number of resources which you will have access to in order to help complete these simple audits. There is the information booklet. This gives you details of the solution that we will talk about soon. It is set out in sections which correspond with the sections in the audit worksheet. You can use it as a memory aid.

28 Then there is the audit worksheet. This is completed for each client.
Home Audit Worksheet Date: ________ Client Name: _______________________Client Phone No: _____________ Client Address: ________________________________________________________ Community Care Worker Name: __________________ Phone No: ______________ This worksheet is for community care workers, to use in the homes of their clients. It helps carers identify where and how energy and water are used and waste is produced in different parts of the home. The Audit outlines simple actions and home improvements to help clients live more comfortably, reduce energy and water use, save money on bills, and help the natural environment. Explanations of the recommendations in this document can be found in the Home Audit Information Booklet for Community Care Workers. The numbered sections correspond in the two documents for ease of reference. Each section covers a different part of the home where resources are used, e.g. In the Kitchen or Heating and Cooling. The majority of the suggested solutions or actions are no-cost or low-cost for the client. Larger possible retrofits or new appliances are in some cases listed in the Audit, for discussion when you think appropriate. There are also a number of selected home retrofits which are entirely free for the client, and which you can order for them on the Retrofit Job Order Form. Then there is the audit worksheet. This is completed for each client. A copy is provided for you. There are ten sections in the audit. Some carers have completed one section each visit, so it has taken ten visits to complete. Most sections only take a few minutes to complete and some might be immediately obvious or irrelevant for some clients. Other carers have completed the whole audit in one visit. This of course will depend on client’s needs and the time available. (Presenters note: what is your organisations policy or goal for completion? When will they need to be completed by?)

29 4 How Water Question Suggested Solution or Action 4.1
Is the hot water system set at a higher temperature than it needs to be? Yes  No – no action required  Set the hot water service to 60°C if it’s a storage hot water service (a large tank), or to 50°C or less if it is an instantaneous system (a small box on the wall). Note: use thermometer to measure water temp at tap – should be no higher than 55°C. Here is an example of how the audit sheet is structured for easy of use. On the left hand side (participants’ left) is the question on what possibly might be an issue. In 4.1 it’s “is the hot water system set at a higher temperature than it needs to be?”. If you tick the box with the arrow (here the yes box), advise the client of the suggested solution or action in the column to the right. If you tick the box with no arrow, go down to the next question. On the right hand side (participants’ right) is a list of possible solutions to help solve the issue. Tick the recommendation which you think is most appropriate for your client. If none are appropriate, leave it blank. That’s it. The worksheet will guide you to look at what is happening and then offer some possible solutions. If there are a number of solutions they are generally in the order of behaviours that the client could change (starting at easiest moving to more complex) then items that could be purchased or installed (starting at lowest cost moving to highest cost)

30 A thermometer is also provided in order to help you complete some of the audit questions. Those questions will become apparent later as we discuss the audit and solutions in detail. The main feature of these thermometers is that it has the temperatures you should be aiming for marked on it. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence.

31 practise in your own home
We recommend that you try out the worksheet and booklet for yourself. Doing an audit on your own home is a great way to practise, and will also help to improve your own home. If you do implement solutions at home, be sure to involve the whole family. Not much point installing a shower timer if no one uses it. And be kind to yourself. Don’t try and fix everything all at the one time. Bite size chunks of doing a solution this week then another one next week is more effective then trying to do 20 things today. The same philosophy sound be applied to your clients.

32 after you complete a client’s home audit you…
So what happens when your completed the audit. What do you do?

33 Send copy for data input Copy form for clients file
Discuss with client Send copy for data input Copy form for clients file Send copy to client’s family Provide copy to client Refer client to assistance coordinator Presenters note: Depending on your program there maybe different actions that need to be taken. Please amend this slide and detail what the course of action the carers will need to undertake on completing the audit.

34 What are the top two areas of energy use in the home?
Question for the participants. Split them into pairs or small groups and give them a few minutes to discuss what they believe is the answer.

35 What are the top two areas of water use in the home?
Question for the participants. Split them into pairs or small groups and give them a few minutes to discuss what they believe is the answer. The answers are on the next two slides

36 Home energy use Here is the answer to the top two energy users in the home. Heating and cooling can account for up to 59% of the client’s energy bill each year! And water heating comes next. Reference: Residential sector energy services Victorian Energy Efficiency Action Statement, Department of Sustainability and Environment, 2006.

37 Home water use Kitchen Bathroom and toilet Garden Laundry
The answer for water use is that the bathroom and the toilet use approximately 51% of all the water in the home, and the laundry uses 22%. Note that these figures are for a new four person home with a garden. Reference: The Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environment. H2OME: A Guide to Permanent Water Savings in Your Home. Melbourne: Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environment, 2008, p. 7 Laundry

38 Sustainability Solutions
So lets get into the detail of what is actually in the audit and the possible solutions. We will start at the start of the Home Audit Information Booklet, with GreenPower.

39 The single easiest action your client can make to reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions, is to switch their electricity from coal generated electricity (regular electricity) to electricity generated from renewable resources, e.g. wind or solar power. This is known as Greenpower. It is available from most electricity providers and changing over is as simple as a phone call. Each electricity provider is different and has differing conditions of their product. The important qualifier is that that the greenpower is accredited GreenPower. If it is accredited GreenPower then they are able to use the GreenPower logo shown. You can check who provides accredited GreenPower on the website Generally speaking though it costs on average $1-2 more per week to have 100% accredited GreenPower in a house with only one or two people. The slight cost increase can be a deterrent for seniors, and an alternative can be to get 50%, 25% & 10% GreenPower, which are cheaper. So you can choose the level of GreenPower you can to purchase. If you client is interested in switching to GreenPower or learning more about their options, all they or their family need to do is contact their electricity provider. 1. GreenPower

40 To cut down on heating and cooling costs, only heat or cool the space that is being used, e.g. the bedroom or the living room. This is known as zoning (heating or cooling specific zones of the house). Close all doors leading in/out of that space. Why try and heat or cool the whole house if they are only using one or two rooms? Image source: In the public domain 2. Heating and cooling

41 Don’t as a matter of course leave the heating or cooling system running all night or while the client is out. Turn it off or install a timer. Turn down the thermostat: for each 1°C the heating is set over 21°C, about 10% is added to the heating bill. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 2. Heating and cooling

42 19-21oC in winter 24-27oC in summer
Aim to have heating at 19-21°C in winter, and cooling at 24-27°C in summer. If the heating or cooling system doesn’t have a thermostat, place a small thermometer in the room to check the temperature yourself. It seems funny to think that in summer we sometimes try to cool our houses to below the temperature we would have the house midwinter, and then heat the house in winter to a temperature above that we would have the house in midsummer. Should we be walking around inside in shorts in winter and jumpers in summer? It does not make sense and adds to the energy use and cost. Large temperature differences between indoor and out also can have negative effects on our health degrees in summer and degrees in winter helps us acclimatise to outdoor temperatures, and helps us stay healthy. Make the temperature comfortable but not extreme. 2. Heating and cooling

43 What’s the best form of heating?
We could spend this whole session discussing heating alone. Unfortunately there are no simple answers and professional advise is often needed. Gas heaters (where natural gas is available) and reverse cycle heat pumps with 4 stars or more are the most efficient heaters. The initial cost is higher but cost in the long-term is lower. Heaters with thermostats and timers allow you to reduce the time that the heater is on and can help reduce running costs. Portable heaters such as bar and fan heaters are cheap to buy but expensive to run. Go for one with a thermostat and a fan, which is the right size for the room you want to heat. Generally you need 100 watts or 0.5 megajoules per square metre for a room with an insulated ceiling and an average ceiling height. If you are interested in wood heating, make sure they wood is sustainably harvested. Wood isn’t a great option in the city because of particulate pollution, but this is less of a problem in the country. Open fireplaces are very inefficient, while slow combustion stoves (an enclosed metal box which sits in the fireplace) are a good option, if you use them well. Image source: all Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 2. Heating and cooling

44 www.energyrating.gov.au 2. Heating and cooling
If your client is considering buying a new appliance, encourage them to get a high efficiency one. To find out its efficiency, look at the energy rating label. It is currently mandatory for all of the following electrical products offered for sale in Australia to carry an approved energy label: air conditioners refrigerators and freezers washing machines dryers dish washers The more stars the better the efficiency. They also offer an estimated energy consumption number in kilowatt hours per year. The higher the number, the more energy is used. 2. Heating and cooling

45 What’s the best form of cooling?
Again we could spend the whole workshop discussing cooling alone and unfortunately there are no simple answers and professional advise is often needed. Principles: Keep the heat from entering the building to start with, for example with insulation and by shading windows. Fans offer the most efficient form of cooling with the lowest running costs, purchase price, energy use and greenhouse emissions. Evaporative coolers are relatively efficient but need “maintaining” with water. Refrigerated coolers (also known as reverse cycle or split system) use a lot of energy. To save energy, only cool the rooms being used. Again thermostats and timers are handy to help regulate usage and keep the cost down. Image source: both in the public domain. 2. Heating and cooling

46 Insulation 3. Insulation, draughts and windows
Some building materials resist and retain heat better than others. Brick homes are better at keeping warm in winter and cool in summer. Other building types need to be well insulated to retain and resist heat. Insulating is one of the best things you can do to save energy in the home. To maintain a comfortable home and reduce heating/cooling bills for your clients, encourage them to insulate the roof and where possible under floors and in walls. Insulation helps to keep the house warm in winter and cool in summer. Insulation batts and blankets made out of ‘glass’ wool are most common. More sustainable options include recycled paper pulp, rockwool, natural wool and recycled polyester threads. Sheets of reflective foil (sarking) also help reflect outside heat or retain warmth. Insulation pays for itself, and there are also government rebates available. Image source: copyright Fletcher Insulation. 3. Insulation, draughts and windows

47 3. Insulation, draughts and windows
Seal any draughts in the home with draught excluders on windows, sealing tape around doors, door sealing flaps and even a simple draught snake for the gaps under doors (although these can be a tripping hazard). A good tip to find air leaks in the house is to light a candle and carry it around. Watch the flame to see where the draughts are! Any types of air leak will result in heat loss from the home in winter and heat gain in summer. Block any unused fireplaces – this is a major draught to look out for! But remember that any room should be regularly aired. And some heating systems need proper ventilation. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 3. Insulation, draughts and windows

48 3. Insulation, draughts and windows
Some examples of products for sealing gaps, clockwise from top left: Door snake Sealants – these come in tubes, and are used to fill in gaps, for example around windows or between floor boards Weather stripping – self-adhesive foam strips which stuck around windows and doors to fill gaps. Putting up weather stripping These products are cheap to buy, easy to use and available at hardware stores. Image source: all Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 3. Insulation, draughts and windows

49 Stopping exhaust fan draughts
Ceiling exhaust fans can cause draughts. A good solution is the DraftStoppa, which fits on top of fans in the roof cavity. When the fan is off the flaps on the stopper sit down and seal off the fan so hot air cannot rise up and through the fan. When the fan is turned on the air blown up by the fan lifts the flaps and allows the air to escape into the ceiling cavity. The fan works as normal, but when it is turned off the flaps close to stop air leaking out. DraftStoppas are available for about $30 from environment shops and some hardware stores. Image sources: left and center photo copyright Stuart Nesbitt; right photo from Environement Victoria and protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 3. Insulation, draughts and windows

50 worst air near window gets cooled and falls warm air rises cold
outside window cool air Windows conduct heat and cold well - if you touch a window when it is cold outside you can feel the difference compared to the room temperature. This means they let the heat out of your house in winter, and in in summer. The worst way to deal with this is to do nothing to protect your window. As you can see from the diagram, in winter the window cools the air next to it, which sinks and spreads around the room. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence worst 3. Insulation, draughts and windows

51 better no pelmet allows air to slip behind curtain air near window
gets cooled and falls warm air rises cold outside curtain window cool air Installing thick curtains or blinds makes a big difference. However they wont do the job alone because the cold air next to the window will fall, sucking in the warm air at the top as it does. This warm air is cooled and the cycle continues causing a cool draft near the window and cooling the room. However, this is better than no curtains or blinds. better

52 pelmet 3. Insulation, draughts and windows
The solution to this is pelmets. This is a box which sits over the top of the curtain rob. Unfortunately there are not a trendy item at present but many older homes have them (although ones without a top don’t keep the heat in). Window pelmets prevent the warm air circulation behind the curtain or blind and significantly reduce heat loss or gain through the windows. If proper pelmets are too expensive, there are cheaper options. A scarf laid across the curtain rod can do the same thing, or you can make your own pelmets out of cardboard. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 3. Insulation, draughts and windows

53 best pelmet stops air slipping behind curtain warm air rises cold
outside curtain window Here you can see that the pelmet stops the warm air from escaping behind the curtain. best 3. Insulation, draughts and windows

54 3. Insulation, draughts and windows
To stop heat getting into the house in summer, use use external blinds or shade sails. It is much better to stop the heat entering the house to start with than to try and deal with it once it is in the house. There is little advantage in having external blinds on the shady or southern side windows, which do not receive direct sunlight. Ensure they are easy to operate, to accommodate the needs of your client. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 3. Insulation, draughts and windows

55 3. Insulation, draughts and windows
Trees can also provide good shading for north facing windows. The type of tree you choose is important. The house on the left (participants’ left) has a tree which is deciduous (meaning it drops its leaves in winter). This allows the winter sun to warm the house. Unfortunately the house on the right (participants’ right) does not and you can see the shade on the windows. This means that the house will be nice and cool in summer, but also in winter. Image source: both Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 3. Insulation, draughts and windows

56 Water heating accounts for up to 21% of energy use in the home
Water heating accounts for up to 21% of energy use in the home. Using hot water is not only a water problem, it’s also an energy problem. Photo source: 4. Hot water Photo: eelke dekker

57 Find the thermostat on the hot water service and check it is set to around 60° C if it is a storage hot water system (a large tank) and 50°C or less if it is an instantaneous hot water system (a small box on the wall). If it is not – change it. You can usually do this by just turning the nob on the system. For storage hot water, 60° C is hot enough for household needs and ensures no bacteria builds up in the system. This will also reduce burns and scalding of clients. Some systems might not have a thermostat available or need a registered plumber to adjust. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 4. Hot water

58 Other ways of increasing the efficiency of the hot water service:
Insulate any pipes which are outside, and run from the the water heater. This is done by taping lagging (insulation foam for pipes) around the pipe. This helps keep the heat in the water as it flows from the water heater to the tap. Turn the hot water system off during the long periods that it isn’t being used, such as holidays. Alternatively, just turn it down. There are usually instructions on the hot water system. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 4. Hot water

59 Greenhouse gas emissions from hot water systems
Electric storage 3.4 tonnes Solar (electric boosted) 1.4 tonnes Heat pump storage 0.9 tonnes Efficient gas storage 0.9 tonnes Efficient gas instantaneous 0.7 tonnes These figures are for a household of 1-2 people in Melbourne, and are emissions per year. A storage hot water system is a big tank, and an instantaneous hot water system is a small box on the wall. They are for natural gas (piped gas). LPG (bottled gas) will have similar emissions but will cost more to run. Solar hot water systems can be the most efficient form of water heating depending on the local conditions and where it is sited on the house. They have a booster system to help when the sun isn’t shining. There is a large upfront cost but they can save money in the long term by reducing energy bills. There are government rebates available for this. As a rule of thumb gas water heaters are the next most efficient and electric systems are the least. Consider the implications if gas bottles will be need to supply gas for heating. Again, get professional advice before installing, and investigate the government rebates available. If gas is not available, consider getting an electric heat pump system . These are expensive to install, but by far the most efficient electric system. Instantaneous systems (also known as continuous flow systems or tankless systems) only heat water as it runs through a small unit and are very efficient. Storage systems, where water is heated in a large tank, are the most common. These systems keep the water warm even when it is not being used and are therefore less efficient and more costly to run! Some types are designed to be used with off peak power, which is charged at a cheaper rate. Data source: Solar (gas boosted) 0.2 tonnes 4. Hot water

60 4. Hot water Hot Water Rebates (as at August 2010 – may need updating)
Gas hot water rebate $300-$700 rebate from the Victorian Government, for replacing a day-rate electric hot water system with a high efficiency gas hot water system. Victorian solar hot water rebate $1600 from the Victorian Government is available to replace gas, wood or oil-fuelled hot water system with solar. Federal solar or heat pump hot water rebate $1000 for solar hot water or $600 for heat pump hot water, where these replace electric storage hot water. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 4. Hot water

61 The shorter the shower the better: most environmental organisations are recommending 4 minute showers. The best way to track this is using a shower timer. We all know how time seems to fly when we get into the shower and lose track of time. Timers alert us to how long we are in there. Showertimers are cheap, and available from hardware stores, water retailers and environment shops. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 5. Bathroom and toilet

62 Fit a water saving or low flow showerhead – this saves both the water and also the energy needed to heat the water. Most water retailers provide these for free. Flexible arm showerheads are available, which are usually the most appropriate type for seniors. Water saving showerheads use 7-9 litres per minute, while old style showerheads use litres per minute. Water saving showerheads still feel like a good shower, but use less energy and water. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 5. Bathroom and toilet

63 Install a dual flush toilet
Install a dual flush toilet. This is a high cost option and requires a plumber to complete. A cheaper alternative is to add a bottle of water or small brick to the cistern to reduce the volume of water used with each flush. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 5. Bathroom and toilet

64 A toilet flush interruptor can give more control of the amount of water used in a flush by only allowing the flush to continue as long as the button is pressed. These just sit inside the cistern, and don’t need to be “installed”. They come in two shapes – either a small brass weight (left), or a long narrow gadget (right). They usually cost less than $15. Image source: both Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 5. Bathroom and toilet

65 A slowly leaking tap can waste 20,000 litres of water a year
A slowly leaking tap can waste 20,000 litres of water a year. Get all leaks fixed now! The most common places for leaks include the toilet, under sinks, from taps, from washing machines and from garden fittings. Toilet leaks can be checked by adding some food dye to the cistern. If this coloured dye comes out in the toilet bowl without flushing, then there is a leak. Changing the washers usually fixes dripping taps. If this does not solve the problem, contact a plumber. Extra information: How to detect a leak… Most of the time leaks are obvious – you can see or hear them. You can also check for hidden leaks, like in the plumbing under the house, by: Ensuring all taps are turned off. Checking the water meter (usually near the front fence) and noting the reading. Then checking the reading again after about three hours. If no water has been used, the reading should be the same. If the meter has moved, there is a leak that needs to be found and fixed. A leak might also be on the supply side of the meter. Check for patches of grass or plants which are greener and more abundant than other plants – they might be growing over a leak in a water pipe. Image source: 5. Bathroom and toilet Image: pjt56

66 15-20% of all water consumed in the home is used in the laundry
15-20% of all water consumed in the home is used in the laundry. Water efficient washing machines are a great way to save water. Front loading 4+ star water efficiency rating machines are best. Wash using cold water – the clean is just as good, it’s better for the clothes and saves the energy used to heat the water. While we sometimes need to use heavy cycles, medium and light cycles use less energy and are gentler on clothes. A front loader machine is more efficient than a top loader, as it uses less water. Adjust the water level of the washing machine to suit the wash size, e.g. for a small load, select the low water level option. Only wash with a full load – this will save about 10 litres of water per wash. Use the sud-saver option if available when there are several loads to wash. This reduces the amount of washing powder use, making it cheaper and better for our waterways. Dry clothes on the washing line or a clothes horse where possible – tumble driers use lots of energy. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 6. In the laundry

67 If your client is buying a new washing machine, encourage them to get one with a high water rating – the more stars the better. Products which have a water rating include showers, taps, flow controllers, toilets, urinals, clothes washing machines and dish washers. You can find more information, and find the water ratings for different brands and models at 6. In the laundry

68 Using grey water from the washing machine can be a great way of keep gardens alive under water restrictions. Before advising clients to use greywater, see the information on using grey water safely, in the information booklet. The type of laundry powder or liquid used affects the waste water that is produced while washing clothes, which is important when using the grey water, but also good to keep in mind for the health of our waterways. Avoid detergents with phosphate in them, as while this softens the water, high levels of it in waterways can cause excessive growth of blue green algae. Try to buy detergents that are biodegradable, as this means the chemicals will break down naturally in the environment. If you are using your grey water, go for grey water friendly detergents – in particular ones without too much salt. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 6. In the laundry

69 Heat-producing appliances, e. g
Heat-producing appliances, e.g. heaters, kettles, irons etc, use the most energy. Only heat the water that is actually intended to be used, e.g. if making only two cups of tea, then only boil enough water for two cups of tea. This is also a lighter load to lift. Use the right sized pot or pan to suit the amount of food that is being cooked, and keep lids on when cooking to retain the heat. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 7. In the kitchen

70 A microwave uses much less energy than an electric stove or oven
A microwave uses much less energy than an electric stove or oven. Cooking in bulk, freezing and then reheating in the microwave is often a good option for people living on their own. Ensure the seals on the oven are in good condition and don’t open the oven door during cooking unless necessary. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 7. In the kitchen

71 Around 8% of the total household water is used in the kitchen for cooking, cleaning, washing or drinking. Wash dishes by hand using a small amount of water in the sink. Older dishwashers are high consumers of water in the kitchen, and while new, efficient dish washers can use less water than handwashing, they also use energy. If buying a dishwasher, make sure it’s a water and energy efficient model, and only wash with a full load. Wash vegetables in a small basin, not under running water. Make sure the basin is small enough to carry Photo source: by Alan Cleaver, 7. In the kitchen Photo: Alan Cleaver

72 Photo: Nicole-Koehler
Flow restrictors and tap aerators both reduce the amount of water coming out of your tap, while still feeling like plenty of water. Tap aerators screw on the end of the tap (left and centre photo). Flow restrictors fit into the joint of the tap (photo on the audience’s right). Both are cheap and easy to install and can reduce water flow by 50%. Image sources: Centre image – by Nicole-Koehler, Other images - Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 7. In the kitchen

73 There are now lots of types of taps available
There are now lots of types of taps available. In particular, there are taps available which are operated by a lever, instead of being twisted on and off. These are much easier to use for seniors and some people with disabilities. They will also reduce water wastage if they are have difficulty in turning on and off traditional taps. Image source: both Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 7. In the kitchen

74 Fridge run everyday all year round, so it is important to ensure that they run as efficiently as possible. Keep a space between the wall and the rear of the fridge for the air to circulate, preventing overheating and allowing the cooling system to work efficiently. Ensure that the seals on the fridge are in good condition to keep in all of the cold air. Check the thermostat (use a thermometer is necessary) and adjust it if needed – fridges should be at 4°C and freezers 15°C below zero. If there is a second fridge, does it really need to be turned on? Switching it off and save a lot of money and energy. Is the fridge the right size for the client’s needs? If it is too large it will be wasting energy to refrigerate a few items (like in the picture). If your client is on their own, perhaps a small fridge is more suitable, e.g. a bar fridge. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 7. In the kitchen

75 7. In the kitchen The Home Wise Grant Program
There are some programs which reduce the cost of replacing essential items like fridges, stoves and washing machines. The Home Wise Grant Program For replacing or repairing essential appliances or household infrastructure, e.g. hot water service, stove. Replacement appliances are selected on the basis of energy or water efficiency. To be eligible, your client must be the holder of a pensioner concession card, health care card or DVA gold card. The No Interest Loan Scheme (NILS) Provides interest-free loans for people on low incomes to buy essential household items, e.g. fridges and washing machines. Loan amounts are usually between $800 and $1,200 and the repayment period is usually around 12 to 18 months. If your client is eligible, they will need to attend a loan interview, and then be assessed by the NILS program. If an energy efficient washing machine or fridge is purchased through NILS, your client may be eligible for a $100 rebate See information booklet for more detail. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 7. In the kitchen

76 8. Standby energy and lights
Standby energy is the energy an appliance uses when it’s on “standby”, but isn’t fully switched off. Not all appliances have a standby mode, but the ones that do tend to be ones with red or green lights which stay on, e.g. on VCRs or TVs, ones with clocks on them, and appliances operated by remote control. Appliances operated by remote control only know you have turned them on because they are on standby waiting for the button on the remote to be pushed. Appliances on standby can account for 10% of the home energy use. To save this energy, turn standby appliances off at the power point. It should be noted that you generally loose clock settings if you turn off standby power. But most houses have more clocks than they need, and many people wear a watch as well. Things like TVs, radios and video recorders retain their station settings even when the power is turned off. Many people think computers need to be left on standby, or information will be lost. As long as you save your work and shut down the computer correctly, all will be there when you restart. However modems need to be left on. You will generally find after a power failure all these devices work as before, but you may have to reset the clock. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 8. Standby energy and lights

77 8. Standby energy and lights
Here are some options to deal with standby energy. Photo on left: If everything is plugged into a power board you can turn the whole lot off with one switch. The problem is generally access to the power point switch, which is often behind the TV or other objects. Other photos: You can buy power boards or switches that have a remote control switch so you can switch off appliances without getting to the power point. While this still uses standby power to run the remote, it will be far less than if you have say a TV, video and stereo all on standby, and is well suited to seniors and people with disabilities who can’t easily bend and reach to switch off power point switches. Image source: all Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 8. Standby energy and lights

78 Purchase and running costs for 8000 hours of use
Compact fluorescent Downlight Incandescent Lighting only accounts for 5% of household emissions but it is a really easy first step to reduce emissions, and will also reduce energy bills. The slide shows the total cost of running the globes for 8000 hours, including purchase price. For example, the incandescent light globe has a life of 1000 hours, so you would need to buy 8 globes to run them for 8000 hours. The total cost is the price of the eight globes, plus the price of the electricity. For the low energy globe (technically called a compact fluorescent), the purchase price is higher, but it has a life of 8000 hours, so you only have to buy one globe. It uses much less electricity, so your total running cost will be a lot lower. Note that for the downlight you might have 8 in the room, so you would be paying 8 x $60 to light the room. To save energy, switch off lights when they are not in use even if they are compact fluorescents. It is a myth that these should be left on. If you are leaving the room for longer than 10 minutes, switch off the lights. Use timers to control any outdoor and security lighting. Ensure these lights are switched off during the day. You can get solar powered lighting for outside which can replace the existing lighting. You can now get compact fluorescent globes which fit into downlight fittings, but use much less energy. However these can be pricey. Image source: all in the public domain $18 $60 per light! $88 8. Standby energy and lights Source: Sustainability Victoria

79 Taking your own bag shopping is an easy way to reduce the number of plastic bags going to landfill.
Sure you still might need plastic bags for things like meat, but there is no need for bags for things like bananas or oranges which have their own protective skin. The bag just keeps then together for the short journey from the shelf to the register to home. Some people use old supermarket plastic bags as bin bags. However you can dramatically cut down on your rubbish, by composting and recycling, so you will only need to put a new bin liner in once or twice a week. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 9. Waste

80 Junk mail sticker 9. Waste
If your client is receiving junk mail they don’t want and aren’t reading, save paper and greenhouse gases with a simple ‘no junk mail’ sticker. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 9. Waste

81 About half of what we send to landlfill in our bins is food scraps and other compostable materials.
Food scraps and waste going to landfill generate methane, a green house gas. Composing it in a worm farm or compost bin uses processes that reduce this. It naturally breaks down and provided good compost for the garden, and can halve the amount of rubbish you send to landfill.. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 9. Waste

82 It is a hassle to have to go outside to the compost bin every time you have food waste. That’s where a small compost bin or bucket inside helps reduce the number of trips outside. There are lots of small bench-top bins you can buy, or you can just use old icecream containers or Tupperware containers. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 9. Waste

83 9. Waste What type of items can be recycled in your area?
There is a lot to remember so refer to you information booklet as we have put all the detail there. Note to presenter: Add details of recycling in your area (see If you have a diagram or image of what you cannot put in the bin, replace the above image. What types of waste should be separated from the standard collection? Do not put the following in the recycling bin: Plastic bags, crockery, plastic food wrap, plant pots, waxed cardboard, paper with food remains, motor oil containers, foam containers, polystyrene. Household hazardous waste: e.g. batteries, motor oil, fluorescent tubes, paint tins, spray cans and gas cylinders. Contact the council for more details on this. Sharps and medical waste disposal: e.g. syringes, razor blades, needles, lancets, sharps and medical waste should be disposed in an appropriate sharps or medical waste disposal bin after use. Contact the council for more details on this. Old Medicines: dispose of old, unused or out-of-date medicines by returning them to the local pharmacy. Do not put these in the rubbish bin, tip them down the sink or flush them down the toilet. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 9. Waste

84 9. Waste Some councils also have green waste bins.
There is a lot to remember so refer to you information booklet as we have put all the detail there. Presenters note: Update this slide with an image of what can go into a green waste bin if you have one. Outline what can and cannot go into the bin and collection details. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 9. Waste

85 By cleaning the home without harsh chemicals, avoiding household insect sprays and pesticides and choosing eco-products, you can prevent exposure to many toxic substances. Clean the home the green way: clean regularly using warm water and a textured or micro-fibre cloth. This will work in most situations! Otherwise, bicarbonate soda is great for grease and glycerine is great for stains. Clean regularly to prevent build-up and the need for harsher chemical cleaners. Prevent pests by keeping the home clean. Essential oils can help deter insects: bay leaf oil, eucalyptus and orange oils deter cockroaches and ants; lavender or citronella oils deter mosquitoes; peppermint oil deters mice; lavender and clove oil deter moths and silverfish. Non-toxic decorating and renovating: finish surfaces with natural oils, waxes and plant- based paints and varnishes. Image source: Environment Victoria, protected by the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. 10. House cleaning

86 Appendix A: Grants and rebates
Details of some of the grants and rebates available are in appendix A. Appendix A: Grants and rebates

87 Any questions? So we have been through a brief overview of the issues and why we should complete these audits. We have looked at the process of completing the audits. And we have looked through a range of ideas and possible solutions you can use. To wrap up, are there any last questions or queries about what we covered? Note to presenter: You might now need to complete an evaluation of the training to determine its impact and gain feedback for improvement of other sessions


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