Presentation on theme: "The Development of Literate Identities in Students Identified as Struggling Readers Mary-Kate Sableski, Ph.D. University of Dayton Dayton, Ohio IRA 2008."— Presentation transcript:
The Development of Literate Identities in Students Identified as Struggling Readers Mary-Kate Sableski, Ph.D. University of Dayton Dayton, Ohio IRA 2008
Culture constructs disability, as well as ability. (Alvermann, 2001, p. 677) The cues of personal identity must always be interpreted in the context of the reality of a given social setting (Angrosino & Mays de Perez, 2000, p. 682). The ways in which teachers perspectives on struggling readers influenced students identity process was examined in this study to understand the connection between the context for instruction and the students shifting literate identities.
The Study The purpose of my study was to relate the developing literate identities of students identified as struggling readers with the interactions between their teachers during one-to- one tutoring. The purpose of my study was to relate the developing literate identities of students identified as struggling readers with the interactions between their teachers during one-to- one tutoring. What is the perspective of the teacher on the assessment, evaluation, and instruction of struggling readers? How does this perspective influence the interactions between teacher and student? What is the perspective of the teacher on the assessment, evaluation, and instruction of struggling readers? How does this perspective influence the interactions between teacher and student? What is the nature of the interactions between teachers and students within a one-to-one tutoring program for struggling readers? What is the nature of the interactions between teachers and students within a one-to-one tutoring program for struggling readers? How do the interactions between the teachers and the students influence the shifting literate identities of students identified as struggling readers? How do the interactions between the teachers and the students influence the shifting literate identities of students identified as struggling readers?
Methodology Qualitative collective case study Qualitative collective case study Data collected over a six-month period Data collected over a six-month period Interviews, observations, documents, discussion transcripts (on-line and face-to- face) Interviews, observations, documents, discussion transcripts (on-line and face-to- face) Thematic coding, microanalysis, and cross- case analysis Thematic coding, microanalysis, and cross- case analysis
The Course Assessment-Instruction Process Assessment-Instruction Process Assessments Assessments Literacy Lesson Framework Literacy Lesson Framework
Assessment-Instruction Process STEP 1: Assessing the Learner STEP 1: Assessing the Learner Gathering background information Gathering background information Formal/Informal Assessments (reading and writing) Formal/Informal Assessments (reading and writing) STEP 2:Assessing the Reading Context STEP 2:Assessing the Reading Context Reading Program (s) Reading Program (s) Match between the reader and the context Match between the reader and the context STEP 3: Reflection, Decision Making, and Planning STEP 3: Reflection, Decision Making, and Planning Identifying a better match Identifying a better match Evaluation (Where are we? What should come next?) Evaluation (Where are we? What should come next?) STEP 4: Focusing on Instruction STEP 4: Focusing on Instruction Diagnostic Teaching: ZPD Diagnostic Teaching: ZPD Continuous Monitoring and Modification Continuous Monitoring and Modification STEP 5: Reporting STEP 5: Reporting Written Case Report Written Case Report
Assessments Qualitative Reading Inventory-IV Qualitative Reading Inventory-IV Developmental Spelling Analysis Developmental Spelling Analysis Interest Inventories, Attitude Surveys Interest Inventories, Attitude Surveys WPM, Fluency Scale (Rasinski) WPM, Fluency Scale (Rasinski) Names Test Names Test Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation Sight Words Sight Words Slosson Oral Reading Test Slosson Oral Reading Test DIBELS DIBELS
Literacy Lesson Framework Familiar Reading: independent level Familiar Reading: independent level Guided Reading: instructional level Guided Reading: instructional level Before Before introduce book introduce book set a purpose, e.g., predicting, questioning, anticipation guide, etc. set a purpose, e.g., predicting, questioning, anticipation guide, etc. During During monitor purpose setting monitor purpose setting strategy teaching strategy teaching After After check predictions, questions, anticipation guide, etc. check predictions, questions, anticipation guide, etc. extension activity extension activity Writing Activity: shared/interactive writing process writing Writing Activity: shared/interactive writing process writing Word Work: word sort making words Word Work: word sort making words Book Sharing: teacher reads aloud Book Sharing: teacher reads aloud
Teacher-Student Interactions Point of Difficulty Point of Difficulty Scaffolding Scaffolding Modeling Modeling Explicit teaching Explicit teaching Revoicing Revoicing Encouraging use of Reading Strategies Encouraging use of Reading Strategies
Explicit teaching: Used by the teacher to focus the students attention on a point of difficulty Noticing T: I noticed that you… Explaining T: The author wrote that because… Telling T: That word says…
Jack1212 You got most of these right today, the ones through and thought, but you self corrected yourself, and you said it very quick, Patrick3Uh huh Jack4So it was almost like your mouth said it too quick. Patrick5Uh huh Jack6And I think you got example this time Patrick7Uh huh Jack8989 Last time you said explain, and this time you did say being again for begin, but look how close those words are, theyre very close. Patrick10Uh huh
Jack1212 How did you know that this word was rinds, because when I first saw it I thought it was rinds (short i). Patrick3434 Well, because theres not an e to make the I say its name, and if you think of kinds, it makes the same sound. Jack5656 Ok, so you saw it, and you said in your mind, it looks just like kinds, so the I says its name. Patrick7Uh huh
Jenny Well, the reason I picked this book, like I told you is because it is a nonfiction book, and it has certain things that a nonfiction book contain that are different from a storybook. If we opened up a storybook we probably wouldnt have a Table of Contents. Im gonna write this on our chart, nonfiction conventions, and a Table of Contents is one of the terms. Why do you think the author of this book put in a table of contents? Ethan8989 Um, because if youre looking for how old they are you can go right to it, because its a real story and not a fake. Jenny Ok, so youre saying that you can look through any of these lists and you might not want to read the whole book, but you could go to say, you said how old they are, so Old Age, and you want to know how old will my guinea pig get, and you run your finger and thats on page 20 so you can read that. And I have a page here that were going to use later on, and it says the Table of Contents is to help the reader find what they are looking for, so Im gonna write the purpose is to help the reader find key topics in the book. Ethan18(Looks away and rubs eyes.)
Jenny1212 And I turned to this page in the book, and can you remind me from Monday what is this page called? Ethan3Um, the contents. Jenny4545 Ok, its sometimes called the contents, and sometimes its also called the table of contents. Ethan6Yeah. Jenny7And why is it important for us to read the table of contents? Ethan Um, say you dont want to read the whole book, say you only want to read, taking infield, you just want to read that, youre just starting it, you dont know what positions are what, and your coach says go to first, and youll know exactly what to do. Jenny Exactly, youve got it, sometimes were not interested in reading the whole nonfiction book, we just want specific information, and we want to be able to find it without turning through every single page. Great! You remembered that very well from Monday.
Animal How it behaves What it looks like Where it lives Its enemies
ANTICIPATION GUIDE BEFORE Teammates by Peter Golenbock AFTER AgreeDisagreeAgreeDisagree 1. Staying away from people who are cruel to you is a good idea. 2. Its fun to be different. 3. When you are very good at something, people like you. 4. Sometimes one person can make a difference in the world. 5. If everybody is being cruel to someone, theres probably a good reason.
Student Identities Resistance to new identities presented by the teachers. Resistance to new identities presented by the teachers. Students brought their own identities to the interactions and responded more positively when these were honored by the teacher. Students brought their own identities to the interactions and responded more positively when these were honored by the teacher. Coping Comments Coping Comments Resistance Resistance Collaboration Collaboration Silenced coping behaviors Silenced coping behaviors
Ethan1Yeah, I got the r and the f confused. Jenny2I like that you can see that when you're writing. Ethan3434 I just think that r and f are glued together because my friend's birthday is today. Jenny5Who's your friend? Ethan6767 Cameron - we're taking him to the pool today for his birthday. Jenny8Ok.Ethan continues writing. Ethan1212 That thing is hard to remember, because you think it has the cuh sound and it has the s sound. Jenny3434 Yeah, the same thing is true of the g sound, sometimes it says juh and sometimes it says guh.
Jack1All right, do you remember what this is here, at the end of the book? Patrick2The glossary Jack3Uh huh, all about the words that you might not know. Patrick4They were in there, Jack5A lot of them were, werent there, in the sentences after them. Patrick6And most of them I know. Jack7878 Well thats what I was going to ask you, are there any that you dont know or want to know more about? Patrick9Um, no. Jack10Did you read through all of them? Patrick11I was going to…. Jack12Backboard, charging, do you know what charging is? Patrick13Yeah Jack14Ok, what is it? Patrick15Oh, no Jack16Why dont you read it? Patrick17[Patrick reads the definitions aloud.] Jack18So what does it mean?
Nora1Ok, so we have characters, setting, what else? Matthew2He looks at her and shrugs his shoulders. Nora What else makes up a fiction story, a made up story. What other elements? Maybe when we talk about it in class… Matthew6I dont know the word. Nora7What is it, even if you dont know the word? Matthew8I forget. Nora9Totally? OK… 10Long pause while he thinks Matthew11Peoples names.