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Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook Policy Impacts Resulting from the Application of UNEP/IEA Methodology Rabin.

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Presentation on theme: "Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook Policy Impacts Resulting from the Application of UNEP/IEA Methodology Rabin."— Presentation transcript:


2 Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook Policy Impacts Resulting from the Application of UNEP/IEA Methodology Rabin Man Shrestha, Chief Environment Management Department Kathmandu Metropolitan City Office, Nepal



5 ) Report ) Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook (KVEO) Report (OECDs Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Framework) An excellent piece of work containing a detailed account of The Status of Kathmandu Valley Environment. Special Feature Identification of Emerging Environmental Problems Plus Specific Recommendations for Future Action

6 Presentation Summary Introduction DPSIR Framework KTM Valley Environment Drivers Pressure State Impact Response

7 DPSIR Framework Driver Fundamental processes in society that drive activities having direct impact on environment Pressure Human activities or social & economic sectors State Environmental state & trends Impact Effect on human well being (economic, social & environmental) Response Interventions on drivers, pressures or impacts to manage state

8 DPSIR Framework & KTM Valleys Environment Government & Projects Rapidly Deteriorating Environment Health EffectsEconomic Disparity Private SectorCivil Society/NGOs Kathmandu Centric Development Political Instability Weak Institutions Increased Pollulting Substances Rapid UrbanizationHaphazard Growth Multidimensional Life Activities D P S I R


10 Kathmandu Valley at a Glance Kathmandu Valley ( 3 districts) (Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur) Area : 899 sq. km Population: 1,647,092 (2001) Population growth: urban : 5.22 %, rural: 2.50 % Road length : 1,331 km Drinking water facilities: 74.67 % Literacy rate: male: 82.87% female: 62.23 % National plus International Centre Services and Activities Socio-economic, cultural, political educational, administrative, financial, industrial, transportation, health, tourism, sports etc.

11 Key Environmental Issues Identified by KVEO Air quality and traffic management Air quality and traffic management Settlement Pattern Settlement Pattern Drinking water resources Drinking water resources Waste management Waste management Natural Disaster Preparedness Natural Disaster Preparedness

12 Air Quality and Traffic Management Drivers: Kathmandu- centric development, Weak institutional capacity, Increasing affluence and Modernization Pressure: Urbanization, Haphazard growth, Unplanned settlement, Vehicular emissions, Increase in number of vehicles, Industrial emissions State: High level of suspended particulate matter, Gaseous pollutants, Toxic pollutants Impact: Health, Tourism, Socio-Economic Condition Response: Ban on diesel three wheelers and Polluting moving chimney Bulls trench kilns, Establishment of vehicular emissions standards and national ambient air quality standard

13 Settlement Pattern Driver: Exceptionally scenic beauty, Pleasant climate, Socially and culturally docile people, Better amenities, Infrastructures and institutions of all kinds, Better job opportunities, Improved transport and communication, Comparatively low density of population, Room for further growth of population Pressure: Change in the settlement pattern, Expansion of industry, Service sectors, Extension of city due to economic and political activities State: Unprecedented land subdivision and building construction Impact: River pollution, Air pollution, Solid waste management, Decrease in Agricultural land, Traffic congestion, Deterioration of cultural heritage Response: Planning initiatives, Investments, Institutional set-up, Legal and policy framework, Construction of outer ring road

14 Drinking Water Resources Driver: Urban population growth, Tourism, Agricultural and Infrastructural development Pressure: Water quality, Increase in use of agro-chemicals, Change in land-use pattern State: Surface and ground Water, public and private supply system and household drawing of underground water, inadequate supply Impact: Water ecology, Wetlands, Public health Response: Water resources acts, Legislations, Collaboration with different organization, commitments to various conventions, treaties, Agreements related to water and sanitation, and ecology

15 Waste Management Drivers: Centralization and Rapid urban growth Pressure: Rapid urban growth, Unplanned and haphazard urban expansion, Change in consumption pattern and living standard, Commerce, Business, Industry and Service sectors State: 434.9 tons a day in the valley Impact: Health, Air, Water and River pollution Response: Formulation of rules, Regulation, Plans, Programmes and projects – Clean Kathmandu Valley Study

16 Natural Disaster Preparedness Drivers: Destructive earthquake resulting from its location in the seismic zone, Centralized development of Kathmandu valley with high population growth, Landslides resulting from geo-morpho-physical and human intervention Pressure: Encroachment of river corridors and open land, haphazard construction of buildings and sky-scrappers State: Most buildings, bridges and other constructions are old and vulnerable to earthquake even of moderate size, Inadequate Hospital and Fire-brigade services, very poor earthquake monitory system Impact : Huge loss of life and property, Environmental imbalance, Damage to important infra-structures ( roads, dams, sewerage system, bridges, disruption of socio-economic condition). Response: Involvement of many government agencies, municipalities, media, Initiative from NGOs, legal provision Lack of education, planning, political instability


18 KVEO RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND ACTION in A NUTSHELL Improved planning and zoning Land pooling Better solid waste management Rainwater harvesting Infrastructure and technical measures Improved coordination and enforcement Community mobilization Direct options for management by various levels of government, civil society, the public-private sector and resident that include

19 of Review of GEO/IEA TRAINING MANUAL APPLICATION Yearly publication of SOE by MOEST/ Nepal Allocation of yearly budget (government and municipalities) Environmental sustainability program – on going (ICIMOD) Environmental awareness programs for newly elected constituent assembly members Environmental Activities

20 Some Pertinent Institutional Problems Municipalities, as well as central government, have very limited resources (human & financial) to manage urban growth and environment Proper planning & monitoring is rarely done Division of responsibility not clear & coordination is weak Weak enforcement mechanism Poor traffic management Unplanned settlements with inadequate facilities for transport issue Environment: a less priority issue

21 Last Year Specific Problems Volatile political environment Lack of peaceful environment Unstable government Manpower deficiency Migration of qualified personnels

22 KVEO REPORT High demand but unavailable to general public Need of revised edition plus vernacular version Time to time discussion and meeting with stakeholders like municipalities, experts, organizations and others Use it for Environment Advocacy Movement Facilitate policy and decision makers in order to make them able to address the environmental issues at priority level Use it for a sustainable development of the valley

23 A Ray of Hope A Ray of Hope Newly Elected Constituent Assembly and its Members The Dawn of a New Nepal with New Government with Strong Political Will and New Commitments Strong Support and Firm Commitment for Cooperation from International Community New Political Structure: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal with full participation of all sections of the Nepalese People.


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