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National Case Studies of Environmental Reporting in Asia and the Pacific Angkana Rawichutiwan Thailand Environment Institute (TEI) 9 September 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "National Case Studies of Environmental Reporting in Asia and the Pacific Angkana Rawichutiwan Thailand Environment Institute (TEI) 9 September 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Case Studies of Environmental Reporting in Asia and the Pacific Angkana Rawichutiwan Thailand Environment Institute (TEI) 9 September 2008

2 Outline Regional overview Regional overview National case studies National case studies ChinaChina ThailandThailand PakistanPakistan

3 Regional Overview Environmental assessment in Asia and the Pacific. Environmental assessment in Asia and the Pacific. National state of environment (SoE) reporting process in 11 countries: China, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Bhutan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Australia, New Zealand, and Samoa. National state of environment (SoE) reporting process in 11 countries: China, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Bhutan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Australia, New Zealand, and Samoa.

4 Key areas The legal basis and historical background The legal basis and historical background The scope, content, and conceptual framework The scope, content, and conceptual framework The uses and constraints of SoE reporting in public communication and policy making The uses and constraints of SoE reporting in public communication and policy making

5 Regional Overview The diversity of the result reflects: the institutional agreements within the countries; the institutional agreements within the countries; the difference in legislative or policy requirements; and the difference in legislative or policy requirements; and the various constraints each country faces the various constraints each country faces

6 1. Assessment and reporting frameworks Legal basis Legal basis Required by national environmental legislation: China, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Bhutan, and AustraliaRequired by national environmental legislation: China, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Bhutan, and Australia General obligation: Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and SamoaGeneral obligation: Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Samoa No specific legislation: New ZealandNo specific legislation: New Zealand The 1998 Aarhus Convention parties: Kazakhstan and TurkmenistanThe 1998 Aarhus Convention parties: Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan

7 1. Assessment and reporting frameworks (cont.) History of reporting History of reporting Japan: 1972Japan: 1972 Australia: 1986Australia: 1986 Most countries: 1990sMost countries: 1990s Frequency of reporting Frequency of reporting Every 5 years: Australia and New ZealandEvery 5 years: Australia and New Zealand Every year: China, Japan, Thailand, and VietnamEvery year: China, Japan, Thailand, and Vietnam One report: Pakistan (in 2005)One report: Pakistan (in 2005)

8 2. Coverage and dissemination Thematic and issue-based reporting Thematic and issue-based reporting Theme-based: China, Pakistan, Bhutan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Australia, and New Zealand.Theme-based: China, Pakistan, Bhutan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Australia, and New Zealand. Issue-based: JapanIssue-based: Japan Both: Thailand, Vietnam, and Samoa.Both: Thailand, Vietnam, and Samoa.

9 2. Coverage and dissemination (cont.) Conceptual frameworks and indicators Conceptual frameworks and indicators Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework.Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework. Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework.Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. No explicit framework or adapted framework.No explicit framework or adapted framework. Language Language Dissemination Dissemination

10 3. Uses SoE reports do not contain any recommendations: China, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and New Zealand. SoE reports do not contain any recommendations: China, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and New Zealand. SoE reports contain recommendations: Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Bhutan, Australia, and Samoa. SoE reports contain recommendations: Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Bhutan, Australia, and Samoa.

11 4. Constraints In preparing the reports In preparing the reports Financial and technical weakness.Financial and technical weakness. A lack of accurate, national consistent environmental data.A lack of accurate, national consistent environmental data. A lack of an agreed set of national environmental indicators.A lack of an agreed set of national environmental indicators. Limited human and financial resources.Limited human and financial resources.

12 4. Constraints (cont.) In response to the recommendations and findings In response to the recommendations and findings Inconsistencies in environmental laws and applicationInconsistencies in environmental laws and application Weak monitoring and enforcementWeak monitoring and enforcement A lack of proper economic incentivesA lack of proper economic incentives The integration of environmental concerns into wider sectoral policies is incomplete.The integration of environmental concerns into wider sectoral policies is incomplete.

13 The examples of national case studies of environmental reporting 1. China 2. Thailand 3. Pakistan

14 China (Northeast Asia) 1.Assessment and reporting framework Article 11 of Chinas Environmental Protection Law. Article 11 of Chinas Environmental Protection Law. Since 1991, the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) has published SoE reports yearly. Since 1991, the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) has published SoE reports yearly. SoE reports are structured on the Stress- Status-Response conceptual framework and are available on the internet. SoE reports are structured on the Stress- Status-Response conceptual framework and are available on the internet.

15 China (cont.) 2. Findings and recommendations Chinas SoE report of 2006, released in Chinas SoE report of 2006, released in The overall environmental quality has remained stable. The overall environmental quality has remained stable. The report does not contain any recommendations. The report does not contain any recommendations.

16 China (cont.) 3. Policy responses Limited use as a decision-making tools. Limited use as a decision-making tools. 4. Constraints Responsibilities for data collection, management, and dissemination are scattered. Responsibilities for data collection, management, and dissemination are scattered. The level of integration of different information sources is still weak. The level of integration of different information sources is still weak.

17 Thailand (Southeast Asia) 1.Assessment and reporting framework It is required by environmental legislation that SoE report be submitted at least once a year. It is required by environmental legislation that SoE report be submitted at least once a year. SoE reports are theme-based and structured on Pressure-State-Response framework. SoE reports are theme-based and structured on Pressure-State-Response framework. The reports are available on the internet. The reports are available on the internet.

18 Thailand (cont.) 2. Findings and recommendations SoE report of 2006 states overall decline in Thailands environment and makes numerous recommendations. SoE report of 2006 states overall decline in Thailands environment and makes numerous recommendations. 3. Policy responses Framed by the National Environmental Quality Management Plan (EQMP) for 2007 – Framed by the National Environmental Quality Management Plan (EQMP) for 2007 – 2011.

19 Thailand (cont.) 4. Constraints A lack of financial and technical capacity in data organizing, processing, and reporting. A lack of financial and technical capacity in data organizing, processing, and reporting. A lack of continuity and clear goals in government policies. A lack of continuity and clear goals in government policies.

20 Pakistan (South Asia) 1. Assessment and reporting framework An annual national SoE report is required to be prepared and published by the 1997 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. An annual national SoE report is required to be prepared and published by the 1997 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Only one SoE report is produced in 2005 due to resource constraints. Only one SoE report is produced in 2005 due to resource constraints. The report is theme-based and structured on the Pressure-State-Impact-Response (PSIR) framework. The report is theme-based and structured on the Pressure-State-Impact-Response (PSIR) framework.

21 Pakistan (cont.) 2. Findings and recommendations SoE report of 2005 identifies key environmental issues of concern: water quality and availability; and air quality. SoE report of 2005 identifies key environmental issues of concern: water quality and availability; and air quality. The report makes a series of recommendations focusing on the resource, capacity, and knowledge constraints. The report makes a series of recommendations focusing on the resource, capacity, and knowledge constraints.

22 Pakistan (cont.) 3. Policy responses Framed by the National Environmental Policy (NEP) for Framed by the National Environmental Policy (NEP) for Constraints Gaps in: institutional design; the regulatory framework; and incentives and accountability. Gaps in: institutional design; the regulatory framework; and incentives and accountability. Capacity limitations. Capacity limitations.

23 Thank you


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