Presentation on theme: "Implementation and impact of NQFs: Report of a study in 16 countries Methodology, key findings, and analysis Stephanie Allais 29 th September 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Implementation and impact of NQFs: Report of a study in 16 countries Methodology, key findings, and analysis Stephanie Allais 29 th September 2010
Methodology overview Literature: critical issues and mapping NQFs 5 case studies on early starters (Australia, the English NVQs, New Zealand, Scotland, and South Africa) through existing research and documentation Bangladesh, Botswana, Chile, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Russia, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, Turkey) 11 case studies (Bangladesh, Botswana, Chile, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Russia, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, Turkey) through 2 stages of fieldwork: – –Phase one: design, intentions of key stakeholders, what NQF looks like in practice, how it was or is being implemented, challenges emerging. – –Phase two: impacts, ownership, and use. Focus on country context, labour market issues, nature of education and training system
Evaluation criteria and nature of the evidence What systems or approaches exist for monitoring or analyzing impact? How do the designers and managers of the framework expect to see and evaluate impact? Is there, in the view of designers and managers of the NQF, evidence of impact, and what is it? How do stakeholders view impact? What do/did they expect from the NQF, and did it meet/is it meeting/do they think it is likely to meet their expectations?
Limitations Time and money Inherent difficulties of comparative research Early stages of development of many NQFs Tendency to interview inner circle
Time frames England, Northern Ireland, Wales: NQVs launched in 1987 Scotland: Credit and Qualifications Framework formally launched in 2001, as culmination of reforms starting in 1984. New Zealand: NQF launched in 1991, changed substantially in 2001. Australia: NQF introduced in 1995. South Africa: NQF introduced in 1995, changed substantially in 2009. Mexico: Labour Competence Framework designed in 1995. Chile: in 1999 the first labour competence framework was designed, followed by another version in 2002. Malaysia: established NQF in 2007, building on earlier reforms.
Time frames Mauritius: NQF created in 2001. Botswana: NVQF design started 2000; implementation started 2004. Sri Lanka established NVQF in 2005. Turkey: NQF dates to TVET reform in 1990s. In 2000 draft law for Occupational Standards Institution prepared. In 2006 Vocational Qualifications Authority created. Lithuania: design started 2006. January 2008 National Authority of Qualifications established, but abolished the same year. Decree to introduce the NQF prepared. Tunisia: 2007 & 2008 focus on design & conceptualization. Decree passed in 2009 introducing NQF design. Bangladesh: NTVQF under design, initiated in 2008. Russia: NQF currently under development.
NQF design in the 16 countries Key structures, institutions and systems –Qualifications Authorities (incl. stakeholders) –Structures to design competency standards or outcomes-based qualifications (incl. stakeholders) –Accreditation, assessment, and certification arrangements NQF design features –A nationally accepted framework –Level descriptors –Outcomes, standards, and competencies Monitoring and evaluation systems
Implementation and use in the 16 countries Creation of structures, institutions, and systems –Different types of Qualification Authorities, different developments, some conflicts with existing institutions –New structures –Tensions with existing forms of governance –Assessment and certification issues Legal status of NQFs –Differences: legislated and voluntary –Tensions with existing legislation and regulation
Implementation and use in the 16 countries Social dialogue and the role of stakeholders –Mainly government-led –In general stakeholder support but weak stakeholder involvement –Complexity of processes and structures –Concerns and resistance from education & training institutions Development & use of level descriptors Use of learning outcomes –Difficulty of employer and trade union involvement –Outsourcing of development –Many instances of un-used qualifications despite stakeholder involvement
Implementation and use in the 16 countries Pilots and sectoral approaches Policy breadth Other issues –Speed –Top-down versus bottom-up –Donor aid and expertise
Aims and impact Improving communication of qualification systems: m ost successes although also problems Improving transparency of individual qualifications through learning outcomes: –Reported support in Australia and Malaysia although difficulties –Overspecification and changing forms of specification –Unused qualifications Reducing mismatch between education and training and labour market: very little evidence Credit accumulation & transfer: +ve & -ve
Aims and impact Recognition of prior learning: little evidence, small-scale Access: little evidence Quality assurance systems and new regulatory, assessment, and certification mechanisms –Marketized competition based VET systems established in Australia and New Zealand –Difficulties in South Africa, Botswana, Mauritius –Concerns in Turkey because of heavy reliance on accreditation mechanisms and institutions –Complexity of governance arrangements in South Africa, Chile, Mexico
General findings and analysis Contexts, models, processes Aims in tension with each other? Learning outcomes difficulties NQFs as tools to improve skills development Accreditation in the context of weak provision Policy borrowing Positive possibilities: sectoral approaches incl range of appropriate expertise, skills eco- systems, financing, developing and supporting education and training institutions