2Multi-stakeholder Board Representatives of users of the assessment findingsInternational ConventionsGovernmentsUN AgenciesBusiness and IndustryNon-governmental organizationsIndigenous PeoplesResponsibilitiesAppoint: Panel chairs, Review Board Chairs, Technical Support UnitsApprove author team composition and outlinesOversight of process and budgetApprove final reports
3Ecosystem ServicesEveryone in the world depends on nature and ecosystem services to provide the conditions for a decent, healthy, and secure life
4Consequences of Ecosystem Change for Human Well-being
5Unprecedented ChangeHumans have made unprecedented changes to ecosystems in recent decades to meet growing demands for food, fresh water, fiber, and energyThese changes have helped to improve the lives of billions, but at the same time they weakened nature’s ability to deliver other key services such as purification of air and water, protection from disasters, and the provision of medicinesThe pressures on ecosystems will increase globally in coming decades unless human attitudes and actions change
6Key ProblemsAmong the outstanding problems identified by this assessment are the dire state of many of the world’s fish stocks; the intense vulnerability of the 2 billion people living in dry regions to the loss of ecosystem services, including water supply; and the growing threat to ecosystems from climate change and nutrient pollution.
7Species extinctionsHuman activities have taken the planet to the edge of a massive wave of species extinctions, further threatening our own well-being
8Consequences for Human Well-being The loss of services derived from ecosystems is a significant barrier to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals to reduce poverty, hunger, and disease
9What can we do about it?Change the economic background to decision-makingMake sure the value of all ecosystem services, not just those bought and sold in the market, are taken into account when making decisionsRemove subsidies to agriculture, fisheries, and energy that cause harm to people and the environmentIntroduce payments to landowners in return for managing their lands in ways that protect ecosystem services, such as water quality and carbon storage, that are of value to societyEstablish market mechanisms to reduce nutrient releases and carbon emissions in the most cost-effective way
10What can we do about it? Improve policy, planning, and management Integrate decision-making between different departments and sectors, as well as international institutions, to ensure that policies are focused on protection of ecosystemsInclude sound management of ecosystem services in all regional planning decisions and in the poverty reduction strategies being prepared by many developing countriesEmpower marginalized groups to influence decisions affecting ecosystem services, and recognize in law local communities’ ownership of natural resourcesEstablish additional protected areas, particularly in marine systems, and provide greater financial and management support to those that already existUse all relevant forms of knowledge and information about ecosystems in decision-making, including the knowledge of local and indigenous groups
11What can we do about it? Influence individual behavior Provide public education on why and how to reduce consumption of threatened ecosystem servicesEstablish reliable certification systems to give people the choice to buy sustainably harvested productsGive people access to information about ecosystems and decisions affecting their servicesDevelop and use environment-friendly technologyInvest in agricultural science and technology aimed at increasing food production with minimal harmful trade-offsRestore degraded ecosystemsPromote technologies to increase energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions
12Key features of successful responses Measures to conserve natural resources are more likely to succeed if local communities are given ownership of them, share the benefits, and are involved in decisions.Even today’s technology and knowledge can reduce considerably the human impact on ecosystems. They are unlikely to be deployed fully, however, until ecosystem services cease to be perceived as free and limitless, and their full value is taken into account.Better protection of natural assets will require coordinated efforts across all sections of governments, businesses, and international institutions. The productivity of ecosystems depends on policy choices on including investment, trade, subsidy, taxation, and regulation, among others.
13The bottom lineWe are spending Earth’s natural capital, putting such strain on the natural functions of Earth that the ability of the planet’s ecosystems to sustain future generations can no longer be taken for granted. At the same time, the assessment shows that the future really is in our hands. We can reverse the degradation of many ecosystem services over the next 50 years, but the changes in policy and practice required are substantial and not currently underway.
14Visit the MA Website www.MAweb.org All MA reports available to downloadAccess to core dataMA ‘outreach’ kitSlidesCommunication tools
15MA Board Institutional Representatives Co-chairs Robert T. Watson, World BankA.H. Zakri, United Nations UniversityInstitutional RepresentativesSalvatore Arico, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationPeter Bridgewater, Ramsar Convention on WetlandsHama Arba Diallo, United Nations Convention to Combat DesertificationAdel El-Beltagy, Consultative Group on International Agricultural ResearchMax Finlayson, Ramsar Convention on WetlandsColin Galbraith, Convention on Migratory SpeciesErika Harms, United Nations FoundationRobert Hepworth, Convention on Migratory SpeciesKerstin Leitner, World Health OrganizationAlfred Oteng-Yeboah, Convention on Biological DiversityChristian Prip, Convention on Biological DiversityMario Ramos, Global Environment FacilityThomas Rosswall, International Council for ScienceAchim Steiner, IUCN–The World Conservation UnionHalldor Thorgeirsson, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeKlaus Töpfer, United Nations Environment ProgrammeJeff Tschirley, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United NationsAlvaro Umaña, United Nations Development ProgrammeRicardo Valentini, United Nations Convention to Combat DesertificationHamdallah Zedan, Convention on Biological Diversity
16MA Board Members at Large Fernando Almeida, Business Council for Sustainable Development – BrazilPhoebe Barnard, Global Invasive Species Programme, South AfricaGordana Beltram, Ministry of Environment, SloveniaDelmar Blasco, SpainAntony Burgmans, Unilever N.V., The NetherlandsEsther Camac, Asociación Ixä Ca Vaá de Desarrollo e Información Indigena, Costa RicaAngela Cropper (ex officio), The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and TobagoPartha Dasgupta, University of Cambridge, U.K.José Maria Figueres, Fundación Costa Rica para el Desarrollo Sostenible, Costa RicaFred Fortier, Indigenous Peoples' Biodiversity Information Network, CanadaMohamed H.A. Hassan, Third World Academy of Sciences, ItalyJonathan Lash, World Resources Institute, United StatesWangari Maathai, Ministry of Environment, KenyaPaul Maro, University of Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaHarold Mooney (ex officio), Stanford University, United StatesMarina Motovilova, Laboratory of Moscow Region, RussiaM.K. Prasad, Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad, IndiaWalter V. Reid, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Malaysia and United StatesHenry Schacht, Lucent Technologies, United StatesPeter Johan Schei, The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, NorwayIsmail Serageldin, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, EgyptDavid Suzuki, David Suzuki Foundation, CanadaM.S. Swaminathan, MS Swaminathan Research Foundation, IndiaJosé Galízia Tundisi, International Institute of Ecology, BrazilAxel Wenblad, Skanska AB, SwedenXu Guanhua, Ministry of Science and Technology, ChinaMuhammad Yunus, Grameen Bank, Bangladesh