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The Plant Kingdom.

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Presentation on theme: "The Plant Kingdom."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Plant Kingdom

2 Key Characteristics of Plants
Multicellular Cell specialization Photosynthetic autotrophs Sessile Alternation of Generations Sporophyte gametophyte

3 Green algae gave rise to plants
Both use the same type of chlorophyll and assessory pigments DNA analysis shows commonality Both store food as starch and have cell walls made of cellulose.

4 Evolutionary Relationship Between Plants and Green Algae

5 Adaptation to Land Lost supportive buoyancy of water
No longer surrounded by water and nutrients. Variation in climate Roots or rootlike structures Cuticle Stomata Eventually….. Vascular tissue lignin

6 Requirements for Plants to Survive on Land

7 Without water, strategies for dipersal of sex cells needed to be developed
Sex cells and zygote needed a means of dispersal that was independent of water. Protective structures were required to protect the developing embryos. The above were achieved with the origin of the seed plants.

8 Characteristics Nonvascular Lack true roots, leaves and stems
Rootlike structure s are called rhizoids Rely on diffusion and poorly developed conducting tissues to distribute water and nutrients. Enclosed reproductive structures Archegonia Antheridia

9 Characteristics of Nonvascular Plants

10 Reproductive cycle for Bryophytes

11 Types of Nonvascular Plants


13 Hepatophyta liverwort

14 Anthocerophyta Hornworts

15 Vascular Plants (tracheophytes)
Conducting vessels also provide support. Xylem Phloem

16 Seedless Vascular Plants (reproduce via spores)

17 Types of Seedless Vascular Plants

18 PSILOPHTA whisk ferns Epiphytes Rootless and leafless

19 LYCOPHYTA club mosses Produces a sporangia bearing strobilus.

20 SPHENOPHYTA Horsetails
Genus: Equisetum Large deposits of silica in their leaves. Jointed stems with whorled leaf arrangement.

21 SPHENOPHYTA Horsetails

22 PTEROPHYTA True ferns Broad leaves called fronds
Leaflets called pinnae Sporangium (sorus pl sori) are formed on the underside of the fronds. Unfolding fronds are called fiddleheads. Spores are dispersed by the wind.

23 PTEROPHYTA True ferns

24 Fern reproductive life cycle

25 Seed producing plants Major adaptations Two types
Pollen (male gametophyte) Seeds (embryonic plant) (male and female gametophyte are greatly reduced in size) Two types Gymnosperms (lack flowers) Angiosperms (flowering plants)

26 Characteristics of Vascular Plants With Seeds

27 Characteristics of Gymnosperms

28 CYCADOPHYTA Cycads Large fernlike leaves
Plants are either male or female and produce gametes in large strobilus


30 Ginkophyta Only one species in present day. Ginkgo biloba
Are resistant to air pollution Bear male and female cones on separate plants. Male produces pollen in strobilus-like cones. Female bears seed which develop a fleshy outer covering and resemble orange-yellow cherries. (Stinks!)

31 GINKGOPHYTA Ginkgo biloba

32 CONIFEROPHYTA Cone-bearing trees
Most diverse of the gymnosperms: produce seeds in woody cones. Include pine, fir, spruce, juniper, cedar, redwood, yew, and larch. Form large forests and have adapted to cold and dry habitat (taiga). Protected against water loss by leaves covered with a thick cuticle (cutin) and by covering it’s trunk and branches with bark. Conifers are evergreens They do loose their leaves if aged or damaged. Keeping leaves allows photosynthesis to begin at the earliest moment in spring. Found where nutrients are scarce as they eliminate need to grow a whole new set of leaves (Deciduous trees lose their leaves).

33 Needles and Cones

34 Types of Gymnosperms

35 CONIFEROPHYTA Cone-bearing trees

36 Life Cycle of a pine

37 GNETOPHYTA Can be found in the deserts or mountains of Asia, Africa and central or South America. 3 genera 1. Gnetum : A tropical climbing plant 2. Ephedra (Shrub-like plants and found in U. S.) i. “Mormon tea” Scrubby cone-bearing plant with scale-like leaves. a. Source of ephedrine: used to treat asthma, emphysema, and hayfever. 3. Welwitschia (Desert dweller with large tuberous root) i. Has only 2 leaves and may live 100 yr.

38 Ephedra Welwitschia

39 Life Cycle of Conifers

40 ANTHOPHYTA Flowering plants

41 Characteristics of Angiosperms

42 Types of Angiosperms

43 Floral Structure

44 Ovule Formation in an Angiosperm

45 Female reproduction

46 Parts of a Pollen Grain

47 Pollen Grain Formation

48 Male reproduction

49 Double fertilization

50 Seed Structure

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