Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Introduction to the Plant Kingdom Introduction to the Plant Kingdom copyright cmassengale.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Introduction to the Plant Kingdom Introduction to the Plant Kingdom copyright cmassengale."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Introduction to the Plant Kingdom Introduction to the Plant Kingdom copyright cmassengale

2 2 Early Ancestors Aquatic to Terrestrial Life copyright cmassengale

3 3 Aquatic Ancestor Closest living species to a possible land plant ancestor Closest living species to a possible land plant ancestor Group of green algae Group of green algae Called Charyophyceans Called Charyophyceans Chara copyright cmassengale

4 4 Algae & Land Plant Similarities Both contain chlorophylls a and b Both contain chlorophylls a and b Have chloroplasts with stacks of thylakoids Have chloroplasts with stacks of thylakoids Store starch in plastids Store starch in plastids Cellulose in cell walls Cellulose in cell walls Go through Alternation of Generations life Cycle Go through Alternation of Generations life Cycle copyright cmassengale

5 5 Terrestrial Habitat Aquatic Habitat copyright cmassengale

6 6 Living in Aquatic Environments Plants surrounded by water so don’t dry out Plants surrounded by water so don’t dry out Sperm swims to egg Sperm swims to egg Water supports plant Water supports plant Plants stay in upper surface near light Plants stay in upper surface near light Absorb nutrients from the H 2 O Absorb nutrients from the H 2 O copyright cmassengale

7 7 Plant Adaptations to Land Problems: Need minerals Need minerals Gravity Gravity Increase in Height for Light Increase in Height for Light Adaptations for Drier environment Adaptations for Drier environment Reproduction Reproduction Solutions: Roots absorb H 2 O & minerals Roots absorb H 2 O & minerals Lignin & cellulose in cell walls Lignin & cellulose in cell walls Vascular Transport System Vascular Transport System Waxy cuticle & stomata with guard cells Waxy cuticle & stomata with guard cells Pollen containing sperm Pollen containing sperm copyright cmassengale

8 8 How Are Plants All Alike? copyright cmassengale

9 9 Plant Characteristics Multicellular Multicellular Autotrophic (photosynthesis) Autotrophic (photosynthesis) Chlorophylls a and b in thylakoid membranes Chlorophylls a and b in thylakoid membranes Surrounded by cell walls containing cellulose (polysaccharide) Surrounded by cell walls containing cellulose (polysaccharide) Store reserve food as amylose (starch) Store reserve food as amylose (starch) copyright cmassengale

10 10 Plant Reproduction Alternation of generations life cycle Alternation of generations life cycle Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage Haploid (1n) gametophyte stage Haploid (1n) gametophyte stage Produce multicellular embryo protected inside multicellular haploid (gametophyte egg sac) tissue Produce multicellular embryo protected inside multicellular haploid (gametophyte egg sac) tissue copyright cmassengale

11 11 Plant Reproduction Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage produces haploid spores by meiosis Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage produces haploid spores by meiosis Haploid spores undergo mitosis to produce gametophyte stage Haploid spores undergo mitosis to produce gametophyte stage Gametophyte makes gametes (eggs and sperm) by meiosis Gametophyte makes gametes (eggs and sperm) by meiosis Zygote (2n) produces the new sporophyte Zygote (2n) produces the new sporophyte copyright cmassengale

12 12 Alternation of Generations 2n Sporophyte 2n gametophyte 1n pollen Ovary with 1n ovules (eggs) 2n seed with plant embryo Sporophyte Gametophyte copyright cmassengale

13 13 Plant Divisions copyright cmassengale

14 14 Taxonomy Plants are divided into two groups Plants are divided into two groups Based on the presence or absence of an internal transport system for water and dissolved materials Based on the presence or absence of an internal transport system for water and dissolved materials Called Vascular System Called Vascular System Vascular Bundles copyright cmassengale

15 15 Vascular System Xylem tissue carries water and minerals upward from the roots Xylem tissue carries water and minerals upward from the roots Phloem tissue carries sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to where they will be stored or used Phloem tissue carries sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to where they will be stored or used Sap is the fluid carried inside the xylem or phloem Sap is the fluid carried inside the xylem or phloem copyright cmassengale

16 16 Nonvascular Plants Do not have vascular tissue for support or conduction of materials Do not have vascular tissue for support or conduction of materials Called Bryophytes Called Bryophytes Require a constantly moist environment Require a constantly moist environment Moss Gametophytes & Sporophytes Sporophyte stage Gametophyte Stage copyright cmassengale

17 17 Nonvascular Plants Plants can’t grow as tall Plants can’t grow as tall Cells must be in direct contact with moisture Cells must be in direct contact with moisture Materials move by diffusion cell-to-cell Materials move by diffusion cell-to-cell Sperm must swim to egg through water droplets Sperm must swim to egg through water droplets copyright cmassengale

18 18 Nonvascular Plants Includes mosses (Bryophyta), liverworts (Hepatophyta), and hornworts (Antherophyta) Includes mosses (Bryophyta), liverworts (Hepatophyta), and hornworts (Antherophyta) LiverwortsHornworts copyright cmassengale

19 19 Main Parts of Vascular Plants Shoots Shoots -Found above ground -Have leaves attached - Photosynthetic part of plant Roots Roots -Found below ground -Absorb water & minerals -Anchor the plant copyright cmassengale

20 20 Vascular Plants Also called Tracheophytes Also called Tracheophytes Subdivided into two groups -- Seedless vascular plants and Seed- bearing vascular plants Subdivided into two groups -- Seedless vascular plants and Seed- bearing vascular plants Club Moss copyright cmassengale

21 21 Seedless Vascular Plants Includes club moss (Lycophyta), horsetails (Sphenophyta), whisk ferns (Psilophyta), and ferns (Pterophyta) Includes club moss (Lycophyta), horsetails (Sphenophyta), whisk ferns (Psilophyta), and ferns (Pterophyta) Horsetails Whisk ferns copyright cmassengale

22 22 Seed-Producing Vascular Plants Includes two groups – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Includes two groups – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Gymnosperms have naked seeds in cones Gymnosperms have naked seeds in cones Angiosperms have flowers that produce seeds to attract pollinators and produce seeds Angiosperms have flowers that produce seeds to attract pollinators and produce seeds copyright cmassengale

23 23 Gymnosperms Coniferophyta are known as conifers Coniferophyta are known as conifers Includes pine, cedar, spruce, and fir Includes pine, cedar, spruce, and fir Cycadophyta – cycads Cycadophyta – cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Ginkgo Cycad copyright cmassengale

24 24 Gymnosperms Contains the oldest living plant – Bristle cone pine Contains the oldest living plant – Bristle cone pine Contains the tallest living plant – Sequoia or redwood Contains the tallest living plant – Sequoia or redwood copyright cmassengale

25 25 Angiosperms Flowering plants Flowering plants Seeds are formed when an egg or ovule is fertilized by pollen in the ovary Seeds are formed when an egg or ovule is fertilized by pollen in the ovary Ovary is within a flower Ovary is within a flower Flower contains the male (stamen) and/or female (ovaries) parts of the plant Flower contains the male (stamen) and/or female (ovaries) parts of the plant Fruits are frequently produced from these ripened ovaries (help disperse seeds) Fruits are frequently produced from these ripened ovaries (help disperse seeds) copyright cmassengale

26 26 Angiosperms Division Anthophyta Division Anthophyta Subdivided into two groups – Monocots and Dicots Subdivided into two groups – Monocots and Dicots Monocots have a single seed cotyledon Monocots have a single seed cotyledon Dicots have two seed cotyledons Dicots have two seed cotyledons copyright cmassengale

27 27 Monocots Parallel venation in leaves Parallel venation in leaves Flower parts in multiples of 3 Flower parts in multiples of 3 Vascular tissue scattered in cross section of stem Vascular tissue scattered in cross section of stem copyright cmassengale

28 28 Dicots Net venation in leaves Net venation in leaves Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular tissue in rings in cross section of stem Vascular tissue in rings in cross section of stem copyright cmassengale

29 29 Plant Uses copyright cmassengale

30 30 Why We Can’t do Without Plants! Produce oxygen for the atmosphere Produce oxygen for the atmosphere Produce lumber for building Produce lumber for building Provide homes and food for many organisms Provide homes and food for many organisms Prevent erosion Prevent erosion Used for food Used for food copyright cmassengale

31 31 More Reasons We Can’t do Without Plants! Produce wood pulp for paper products Produce wood pulp for paper products Source of many medicines Source of many medicines Ornamental and shade for yards Ornamental and shade for yards Fibers such as cotton for fabric Fibers such as cotton for fabric Dyes Dyes copyright cmassengale

32 32copyright cmassengale


Download ppt "1 Introduction to the Plant Kingdom Introduction to the Plant Kingdom copyright cmassengale."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google