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REPLACING MERCURY CONTAINING PRODUCTS AND MERCURY THERMOMETERS IN ASTM STANDARDS Technical and Legal Issues Presented by Jim & Deanne Emory Miller & Weber,

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Presentation on theme: "REPLACING MERCURY CONTAINING PRODUCTS AND MERCURY THERMOMETERS IN ASTM STANDARDS Technical and Legal Issues Presented by Jim & Deanne Emory Miller & Weber,"— Presentation transcript:

1 REPLACING MERCURY CONTAINING PRODUCTS AND MERCURY THERMOMETERS IN ASTM STANDARDS Technical and Legal Issues Presented by Jim & Deanne Emory Miller & Weber, Inc. Ridgewood, NY June 26, 2007

2 Deanne Miller Emory President & Owner of Miller & Weber, Inc. Precision Glass Instruments Ridgewood, NY Chairman, E20.05 Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers & Hydrometers Chairman, ASTM E20 Mercury Project Task Group Secretary, E20.04 on Thermocouples Member-at Large, D02 Committee on Petroleum James E. Emory, Jr. Judicial Referee and Senior Court Attorney New York State Office of Court Administration Member, E20 Committee on Temperature Measurement CONTACT US: (718)

3 Abstract At the request of several States, ASTM International has issued a directive to all technical committees to review their standards that reference mercury containing instruments or mercury methods and determine the technical and economic feasibility of replacing them or substituting with non-mercury instruments or methods. A number of States have banned the sale of mercury containing instruments, including ASTM mercury thermometers, making it difficult for users in those States to comply with ASTM standards. In most cases, the instruments in question are the mercury-in-glass thermometers specified in ASTM E1. These thermometers have long been the gold standard temperature measurement devices in many ASTM standards. In this presentation we will review the ASTM directive, including how to communicate the technical committees resolutions to ASTM; technical issues in replacing mercury containing devices with other devices, especially the thermometers found in ASTM E1; legal issues involved with this project, including which States have bans and how the bans differ from State to State. We will leave discussion time at the end of the presentation.

4 How did this start?

5 NEWMOA The Northeast Waste Management Officials Association based in Boston, Massachusetts found at

6 Member States Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Rhode Island Vermont NEWMOA was established by the Governors of the New England states as an official regional organization to coordinate interstate hazardous and solid waste, and pollution prevention activities and support state waste programs, and was formally recognized by the U.S EPA in 1986.

7 IMERC In 2001, NEWMOA established IMERC--- the Interstate Mercury Education & Reduction Clearinghouse. The State- Laws we will discuss first came out of this Clearinghouse. IMERC States include all of the NEWMOA states and California, Illinois, Minnesota, North Carolina and Washington.

8 ASTM INITIATIVE

9 ASTM Involvement In January 2006, state environmental agencies became aware of Federal and State rules and regulations that require the use of ASTM standards. Many of these standards require the use of mercury in glass (ASTM E1) thermometers. States began to lobby ASTM to remove requirement of mercury in their standards.

10 ASTM Search In response to the requests, ASTM searched through their standards for references to ASTM E1, mercury, mercury-in-glass thermometers and liquid- in-glass thermometers. ASTM E1 is the most referenced standard within ASTM- it is referenced in over 900 standards.

11 ASTM Response ASTM Headquarters has requested each technical committee to review standards and determine whether the use of mercury or mercury products is appropriate; if it can be replaced or supplemented with non-mercury methods or products; if the reference should be removed without replacement of method or product.

12 ASTM E20 Mercury Project Task Group Consists of seven members of ASTM Committee E20 to help provide technical guidance to the committees affect by this review. We have technical experts in liquid-in-glass thermometry, resistance thermometry, themocouples, radiation thermometry, thermistors and in calibration and construction. Guidance document developed for distribution to Subcommittee Chairmen and is available today.

13 ASTM Committee E20 on Temperature Measurement Overview of Committee and Committee Standards

14 Technical Subcommittees E20.02Radiation Thermometry E20.03Resistance Thermometry E20.04Thermocouples E20.05Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers and Hydrometers E20.06New Thermometers & Techniques E20.07Fundamentals E20.08Medical Thermometry

15 ASTM Committee E20 Temperature Measurement ASTM Subcommittee E20.05 Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers and Hydrometers Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers ASTM E1 Standard Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers ASTM E77 Standard Test Method for Inspection and Verification of Thermometers ASTM E2251 Standard Specification for Liquid-in-Glass ASTM Thermometers with Low- Hazard Precision Liquids Hydrometers & Thermohydrometers ASTM E100 Standard Specification for ASTM Hydrometers ASTM E126 Standard Test Method for Inspection, Calibration and Verification of Hydrometers NEW Standard Specification for ASTM Thermohydrometers using Non-Mercury Liquids NEW Standard Specification for Electronic Thermohydrometers (densitometers) using the Digital Buoyancy Method NEW Standard Test Method for Calibration and Verification of Electronic Thermohydrometers (Densitometers)

16 ASTM Committee E20 Temperature Measurement Other Standards of Interest Resistance Thermometry E644- Standard Test Methods for Testing Industrial Resistance Thermometers. E1137- Standard Specification for Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometers Thermocouples E220- Standard Test Method for Calibration of Thermocouples by Comparison Techniques E230- Specification for Temperature- Electromotive Force (EMF) Tables for Standardized Thermocouples Fundamentals E563- Standard Practice for Preparation and Use of an Ice- Point Bath as a Reference Temperature

17 SUMMARY STATE BANS ON MERCURY-IN-GLASS THERMOMETERS as of June 15, 2007

18 CALIFORNIA Effective July 1, 2006 A person shall not sell, offer to sell, or distribute for promotional purposes, any of the following new or re-furbished mercury- added products…. Barometer… flow meter… hydrometer… hygrometer… psychrometer… manometer… pyrometer… thermometer. This does not apply to the sale of a mercury-added product if the use of the product is required under federal law or federal contract specification or if the only mercury-added component in the product is a button cell battery. California Codes Health and Safety Code

19 CONNECTICUT Effective July 1, 2004 (addl req. July 1, 2006) … no person shall offer for sale or distribute for promotional purposes any mercury-added product if the mercury content of the product exceeds 100 mg in the case of fabricated mercury-added products or 50 ppm in the case of formulated mercury added products Manufacturer may apply for an exemption. Connecticut Chapter 446m Mercury Reduction and Education Sec

20 INDIANA Effective July 1, 2003 A person may sell or provide a mercury commodity to another person in this state (other than for collecting for recycling) only if: (1) the person selling or providing the mercury commodity provides an MSDS… (2) person selling or providing the mercury commodity requires that the purchaser or recipient will (a) use the mercury only for medical purposes, in dental amalgam, dispose-caps, for training, for research or for manufacturing purposes (b) understands that mercury is toxic, (c) will store and use properly.. (d) will not intentionally place… in solid waste for disposal or in a wastewater disposal system. Indiana IC

21 MAINE Effective July 1, 2006 A person shall not sell or offer to sell or distribute the following mercury-added products: Barometer… flow meter… hydrometer… hygrometer or psychrometer… manometer… pyrometer… thermometer… This section does not apply to the sale of the above products if the use of the product is a federal requirement or if the only mercury-added component in the product is a button cell battery. Manufacturer may apply for an exemption. Maine Title 38, Chapter 16-B, Section 1661-C-6

22 MASSACHUSETTS Effective May 1, 2007 Manufacturers of products to which mercury has been intentionally added and that are sold in the state must establish a system of collecting them at the end of their useful lives, and for recycling their mercury contents. The plan must be approved and certified by the department. Unless the mercury-added product is required under federal law. Massachusetts Chapter 190 of the Acts of 2006, Section 6J

23 MICHIGAN Effective January 1, 2003 (Ban includes) all mercury thermometers sold or offered for promotion… …except those (1) required by state or federal statute, regulation, or administrative rule, (2) used for pharmaceutical research purposes. Enforcement shall be done by dept of environmental quality. A person who violates this part is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment of not more than 60 days or a fine of not more than $1,000.00, or both, plus the costs of prosecution. Michigan Act 451 of 1994, Sections &

24 MINNESOTA Effective January 1, 2002 Includes all mercury thermometers manufactured after June 1, 2002, Except those (1) used for food research and development or processing, (2) are a component of an animal agriculture climate control system or industrial measurement system, until a system is replaced or a non-mercury component is available, (3) used for calibration of other thermometers, apparatus or equipment unless a nonmercury calibration standard is approved by NIST and (4) electronic thermometers with button cell batteries. Minnesota Chapter 47- H.F. No 274

25 NEBRASKA Effective May 20, 2003 No liquid mercury thermometer containing elemental mercury shall be sold, given away, or otherwise distributed in this state. No exceptions in statute. Nebraska Chapter 28, Section & (Laws of 2003, LB 17 Section 3 & 4)

26 NEW YORK Effective January 1, 2007 (Bans) all mercury-added manometers and hydrometers, except those used to replace a product that is a component in a larger product in use prior to January 1, 2007, or the resale of a manometer or hydrometer manufactured before December 31, New York Title 21, Section ,6

27 NEW YORK Effective January 1, 2008 Cannot sell, offer for sale, or distribute mercury-added thermometers if a non-mercury alternative is available. Commission will review this by February 2008 and rule if non-mercury alternatives are available. Excludes mercury-added thermometers that are a component of a larger product in use prior to January 1, 2008 or resale manufactured before January 1, 2008; excludes if the use is a federal requirement. New York Title 21, Section ,8

28 RHODE ISLAND Effective January 1, revise 1/1/07 & 1/1/08 No mercury added product shall be offered for final sale or use or distributed for promotional purposes in the state if the mercury content of product exceeds 1 gram for fabricated products and 250 ppm for formulated products. Excludes are lighting for entertainment industry and fluorescent lamps and HID lamps. Manufacturers may apply for exemption. Rhode Island Title 23, Health & Safety, Mercury Reduction & Eductation Act. Chapter

29 VERMONT Effective January 1, 2007 Restricts the sale of thermometers that contain elemental mercury Excludes if it is for a Federal requirement. Also … barometers… flow meters… hygrometers & psychrometers… manometers… hydrometers. Excludes Hygrometers, psychrometers & manometers if replacing into larger device in place before 1/1/07. Exemptions may be granted. Vermont Chapter 164, Section 7105

30 WASHINGTON Effective January 1, 2006 (Ban) includes all mercury thermometers… except those (1)electronic thermometers with a button cell battery containing mercury (2) used for food research and development or processing including meat, dairy products, and pet food processing, (3) are a component of an animal agriculture climate control system or industrial measurement system, until a system is replaced or a non-mercury component is available, (3) used for calibration of other thermometers, apparatus or equipment unless a nonmercury calibration standard is approved by NIST and (4) electronic thermometers with button cell batteries. Washington Chapter 70.95M.050

31 So, how do we substitute for this?

32

33 What about our manual methods?

34 Thermometer Types Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (SPRTs) (very accurate, but susceptible to shock) 13.8 K to 962 °C (Calibration uncertainty less than °C *) Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometers (IPRTs) –196 °C to 850 °C (Calibration uncertainty less than 0.01 °C *) Thermistors –10 °C to 100 °C (Calibration uncertainty less than °C *) Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers –150 °C to 400 °C (Calibration uncertainty between 0.02 and 0.5 °C *) Thermocouples –196 ° C to 2100 °C (Calibration uncertainty between 0.3 and 1 °C *) * U (k=2) Information courtesy of NIST

35 Digital Thermometers A digital thermometer is an electronic box that converts either resistance or emf of a thermometer to temperature. Platinum Resistance Thermometers, thermistors and thermocouples in disguise. Pictures courtesy of Fluke/Hart Scientific, ASL and WL Walker Co.

36 Thermometer Types: Calibration Ranges and Uncertainties Chart used with permission of NIST Thermometry Group

37 Determine Differences in Scale Error and Uncertainties PRTs and Thermistors COMPONENTMETHOD OF EVALUATION Calibration uncertainty or tolerance Manufacturer or calibration laboratory Alternative sensor driftManufacturers specifications, or customer history Hysteresis of alternative sensor (PRTs only) ASTM Method E644, implemented by manufacturer or customer Readout uncertaintyManufacturer or independent evaluation Readout driftManufacturer or independent evaluation Used with permission of the NIST Thermometry Group

38 Determine Differences in Scale Error and Uncertainties Thermocouple Sensors COMPONENTMETHOD OF EVALUATION Calibration uncertainty or tolerance Manufacturer or calibration laboratory Thermocouple driftResults from literature or in situ comparisons (see ASTM MNL 12) Reference junction uncertaintyManufacturer or independent evaluation Readout uncertaintyManufacturer or independent evaluation Readout driftManufacturer or independent evaluation Used with permission of the NIST Thermometry Group

39 Additional Constraints Sensor should be hermetically sealed in stainless steel sheath of outer diameter no larger than the bulb diameter of the E1 thermometer. When substituting for a partial immersion thermometer, immerse at least as deep as you would the glass thermometer. A bias may be introduced due to temperature gradients in the ASTM apparatus if the immersion is very different from the glass thermometer. When substituting for a total immersion thermometer, the center of the alternative sensor should be placed at a depth equal to the center of the liquid-in-glass thermometer. Again, bias may be introduced since PRT can be fixed in place and there may be temperature gradients. PRTs should be fabricated to ASTM E1137. Thermistors should be fabricated to ASTM E879. Thermocouples should be fabricated either of soft-insulated wire mounted in stainless-steel sheaths similar to the mountings described in E879 or E1137, or of mineral insulated construction in conformance with E608.

40 General Issues with Replacing Mercury-in-Glass Thermometers in ASTM Standards

41 ASTM Total Immersion Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers Total immersion thermometers, when properly used have immersion depths that vary with temperature. Some ASTM total immersion thermometers (such as ASTM Calorimetry thermometers) are not manufactured to measure absolute temperature. ASTM Kinematic Viscosity thermometers have ice points that do not read absolute temperature. Many ASTM total immersion thermometers (such as distillation and saybolt viscosity thermometers) are used as partial immersion thermometers.

42 ASTM Distillation Manual Methods ASTM 8C vs Electronic Thermometer Electronic Thermometer ASTM 8C Reading Difference in Readings 50.0 °C49.9 °C-0.1 °C °C99.1 °C-0.9 °C °C147.5 °C-2.5 °C °C195.2 °C-4.8 °C °C242.0 °C-8.0 °C °C288.0 °C-12.0 °C °C333.3 °C-16.7 °C °C377.8 °C-22.2 °C

43 ASTM Partial Immersion Mercury-in-Glass Thermometers Many ASTM partial immersion mercury-in-glass thermometers have artificially high or low emergent stem temperatures. Study of differences in readings of mercury-in- glass thermometer and substitute thermometer (whether liquid-in-glass or electronic must be made before relying on the substitute thermometer. Special care must be taken when substituting in timed tests (ie flashpoint). Rate of rise and lag time must be accounted for.

44 Typical Alternative Liquids typically available in thermometers Toluene (ASTM 6C & ASTM 114C) Kerosene Mineral Spirits Silicones Citrus Oils IsoAmyl Benzoate Properties of Typical Alternative Liquids as Compared to Mercury Less hazardous than mercury Reaction time descending up to fifteen minutes. Repeatability less precise than mercury

45 Typical non-mercury thermometers do not have tolerance, repeatability or response time adequate for use in ASTM standards. WHY?

46 Behaviors of Traditional Liquids in Glass Capillaries

47 Desirable Behaviors of Mercury as a Thermometric Liquid Expands Uniformly Wide useable range (-39 to 500 °C) Reaction time three minutes Repeatable measurement capability

48 ASTM E2251 Standard Specification for Liquid-in-Glass ASTM Thermometers with Low-Hazard Precision Liquids Written by the NIST Thermometry group and members of ASTM E20.05 based on the research presented at the 8 th International Temperature Symposium in October Accepted by ASTM Committee E20 in November Published by ASTM in February 2003.

49 Preliminary Results of a New Type of Non-Hazardous Liquid-Filled Precision Glass Thermometer Research presented at the 8 th International Temperature Symposium in Chicago, Illinois October Research published by the AIP in the Conference Proceedings. CP684, Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Volume 7. Edited by Dean C. Ripple.

50 PROPERTIES REQUIRED OF ASTM E2251 THERMOMETERS Liquid column will ascend or descend with change of temperature so that top of liquid column reaches final position within 3 minutes of attaining temperature to be measured. Liquid column will descend through a contraction chamber or ice point chamber and will reach final position within 3 minutes of attaining temperature to be measured. Liquid is biodegradable Liquid is non-toxic in thermometer quantities (per 49 CFR ) Liquid is non-hazardous (per EPA Regulations) Thermometer will give repeatable results similar to those expected of a mercury thermometer Thermometer will give reproducible results similar to those expected of a mercury thermometer

51 Behaviors of Traditional Liquids in Glass Capillaries

52 Current available E2251 Thermometers Thermometers currently being manufactured to ASTM E2251 show no meniscus under 5X magnification. Future generations now in R&D may show cohesive forces greater than adhesive forces as with mercury.

53 Thermometers currently available and approved in ASTM E2251 ASTM S12C &F Density Wide Range ASTM S56C & F Bomb Calorimetry ASTM S59C & F Tank ASTM S62C & F thru ASTM S67C & F Precision ASTM S91CDistillation ASTM S116CBomb Calorimetry ASTM S117CBomb Calorimetry ASTM S120CKinematic Viscosity

54 So, how do we substitute for this?

55 Subcommittee E20.05 is currently working on a new standard for thermohydrometers with non-mercury liquids. The draft standard, as currently written has the maximum permissible error of the thermohydrometer thermometers at approximately double the maximum permissible error of the mercury filled thermometers in the ASTM E100

56 Glass Hydrometer Method If you are using a hydrometer method, the best alternative we have today is a plain form hydrometer with an ASTM E2251 ASTM S12C or ASTM S12F density thermometer in the cylinder to measure the temperature.

57 Digital Densitometers using the digital buoyancy method Newly available in the United States, these instruments can be used as direct replacements for glass hydrometers, glass thermohydrometers and they can do direct reading of density directly in the storage unit or tank car. They are durable, simple to use, and unlike U-tube densitometers, easy to clean.

58

59 What to do next? Decide whether you mercury-in-glass thermometer is a gold standard. If so, give rationale for leaving the method or instrument as a requirement to the standard. If you are going to allow substitutes, decide which types will be adequate for use in your standard. If necessary, do studies to identify whether your precision and bias statements will be affected. If necessary, have new thermometers that meet your subcommittee needs added to ASTM E2251.

60 Finish work for ASTM Headquarters Ballot changes to standard- including the addition of a mercury caveat, if appropriate. Subcommittee respond back to ASTM on action to be taken in each standard identified in the search. This response can go to your staff manager.


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