Practice Principles and Pharmacology CSD 5970 Counseling the Chemically Dependent.
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Practice Principles and Pharmacology CSD 5970 Counseling the Chemically Dependent
Review We can’t separate ourselves from our history! What we see depends on the lenses that we use (including treatment orientation). Have we learned from our experience with prohibition? Treatment, Self-Help, and Recovery
Substance Abuse Practice Designated treatment facilities Health care Child welfare Financial assistance Mental health Anywhere people seek help!
Substance Abuse Practice Personal Bias and Perspective Challenges for recovering folks Challenges for non-recovering folks Challenges for everyone
Some Terms Use Misuse Abuse Addiction Habituation Dependence
Use From Lawson and Lawson The intake of a chemical substance into the body with the goal of somehow altering one’s state of consciousness. (Use may or may not cause problems)
Misuse Using a chemical with some physically, psychologically, socially, or legally adverse consequence (often carries moral implications). Cultural Implications?
Abuse Chronic, recurrent misuse of chemicals. (This term should, perhaps, be left for such situations as child abuse, animal abuse, and self-abuse. The term chemical abuse tends to anthropomorphize chemicals by making them the object of the abuse)
Abuse DSM IV criteria. Failure to fulfill a major life function. Use in situations where it is physically hazardous. Persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effect of the substance. Recurrent legal problems related to the substance.
Addiction A cellular change that occurs with increased use of most depressant drugs. The primary clinical features are the development of tolerance and the development of withdrawal symptoms upon removal of the drug.
Habituation The repetition of behavior. (This behavior is often anxiety reducing for the individual)
Dependence Physical dependency is much the same as addiction. Psychological dependence is a state that occurs when there is a strong urge to alter one’s state of consciousness through the use of a chemical. The two types of dependency may occur independently or in combination with each other.
Dependence Johnson Recurrent or chronic use (often daily), that results in a physiological and/or psychological “need” (real of felt) for the drug as a matter of survival, causing severe and/or chronic negative life consequences. The chemically dependent person’s life is fully encompassed by the obsession to use drugs and live the accompanying lifestyle.
Dependence Physical addiction vs. psychological dependence The dependency cycle or pattern “it is always easier to get on a roller coaster than off”
Dependency DSM IV 3 (or more) of the following at any time in a 12-month period. Tolerance Withdrawal Substance is taken in larger amounts or for longer than intended
Dependency DSM IV Persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to cut down Time spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance Important life roles given up Use continues despite serious negative consequences