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Prevalence and Patterns of Nonmedical Use of OxyContin ® and Other Pain Relievers Joe Gfroerer Office of Applied Studies Substance Abuse and Mental Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Prevalence and Patterns of Nonmedical Use of OxyContin ® and Other Pain Relievers Joe Gfroerer Office of Applied Studies Substance Abuse and Mental Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prevalence and Patterns of Nonmedical Use of OxyContin ® and Other Pain Relievers Joe Gfroerer Office of Applied Studies Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Anesthetic and Life Support Drugs and Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committees November 13, 2008 Director Peter Delany, Ph.D, LCSW-C Room Choke Cherry Road Rockville, MD

2 2 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Representative nationally and in each State Civilian, noninstitutional population, age 12+ Face-to-face interview, 1 hour Computer-assisted, mainly self-administered 67,500 respondents each year Survey changed in 1999 and in 2002, creating breaks in trend Response rates (2007): –90% of Households selected –74% of Persons selected within households (85% for youth, 73% for adults)

3 3 NSDUH Data on Illicit Drug Use Illicit drug use: Use of an illicit drug, or nonmedical use of prescription drugs; For each drug: Recency of use –Lifetime, Past year, Past month Frequency of use Date of first use –Incidence/First time use within past year Dependence and abuse –Based on DSM-IV criteria Received treatment in past year for problem with drug

4 4 Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: NSDUH Definition Not prescribed for you OR You took the drug only for the experience or feeling it caused (Excludes OTC)

5 5 Prescription Drug Questioning Strategy Primary focus is on therapeutic classes (TCs): –Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, Sedatives Specific pharmaceuticals asked for each TC: –Lifetime use only (except OxyContin ® and methamphetamine) –Includes mix of brand-name and generic drugs –Done mainly to help respondents understand the TC –Pill cards show specific pharmaceuticals –Any other drug in the TC collected as write-in(s)

6 6 Drug groups above the red line are asked separately Drug groups below the red line are asked in tandem with follow-up to identify which one(s) Any other drugs in TC are specified by write-in. PILL CARDS

7 Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Pain Relievers, Age 12 or Older: Percent Using in Lifetime Ultram ® Methadone Morphine Demerol ® OxyContin ® Codeine Hydrocodone Percocet ®, Percodan ®, or Tylox ® Darvocet ®, Darvon ®, or Tylenol ® with Codeine Vicodin ®, Lortab ®, or Lorcet ®

8 Nonmedical Pain Reliever Use: Trends and Patterns

9 Nonmedical Pain Reliever Use, Age 12 or Older: 2002 and Numbers (in Millions) Lifetime Use Past Month Use Past Year Use (13.3% + ) (5.0% + ) (2.1%) (12.6%) (1.9%) (4.7%) + Difference between this estimate and the 2002 estimate is statistically significant at the.05 level.

10 Past Year Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse and Treatment, Aged 12 or Older: 2002 and Received Treatment for Pain Reliever Problem During Last Treatment Visit, within Past Year Past Year Nonmedical Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse Numbers (in Thousands) + Difference between this estimate and the 2002 estimate is statistically significant at the.05 level.

11 Past Year Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers, by Age: 2002 and Percent Used in Past Year + Difference between this estimate and the 2002 estimate is statistically significant at the.05 level.

12 Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Pain Relievers, Ages 18-25: 2002 and Darvocet ®, Darvon ®, or Tylenol ® w/Codeine Percocet ®, Percodan ®, or Tylox ® Vicodin ®, Lortab ®, or Lorcet ® Percent Ever Used HydrocodoneCodeineOxyContin ® Morphine + Difference between this estimate and the 2002 estimate is statistically significant at the.05 level.

13 Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Pain Relievers, Ages 26-34: 2002 and Darvocet ®, Darvon ®, or Tylenol ® w/Codeine Percocet ®, Percodan ®, or Tylox ® Vicodin ®, Lortab ®, or Lorcet ® Percent Ever Used HydrocodoneCodeineOxyContin ® Morphine + Difference between this estimate and the 2002 estimate is statistically significant at the.05 level.

14 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Substate Region: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on

15 Source Where Pain Relievers Were Obtained for Most Recent Nonmedical Use among Past Year Users Aged 12 or Older: 2007 Note: Totals may not sum to 100% because of rounding or because suppressed estimates are not shown. 1 The Other category includes the sources "Wrote Fake Prescription," "Stole from Doctors Office/Clinic/Hospital/Pharmacy," and "Some Other Way." Bought/Took from Friend/Relative 14.1% Drug Dealer/ Stranger 4.1% Bought on Internet 0.5% Other 1 4.2% Free from Friend/Relative 6.6% Bought/Took from Friend/Relative 5.9% One Doctor 81.0% Drug Dealer/ Stranger 1.8% Other 1 1.8% Source Where Respondent Obtained Source Where Friend/Relative Obtained One Doctor 18.1% More than One Doctor 2.6% Free from Friend/Relative 56.5% More than One Doctor 2.9% Bought on Internet 0.1% 15

16 Sources of Rx Pain Relievers among Persons Who Used Pain Relievers Nonmedically in the Past Year: Combined 2005 and Percent among Past Year Users Free from Friend/Relative Prescriptions from 1 Doctor Bought from Friend/relative Drug Dealer/Stranger Took from Friend/relative Prescription from 2+ Doctors Internet Other

17 Initiation: First-time Use within the Past 12 Months

18 Specific Drug Used When Initiating Illicit Drug Use among Past Year Initiates of Illicit Drugs Aged 12 or Older: Million Initiates of Illicit Drugs Marijuana 56.2% Pain Relievers 19.0% Note:The percentages add to greater than 100 percent because of a small number of respondents initiating multiple drugs on the same day. Tranquilizers 6.5% Hallucinogens 2.0% Stimulants 4.1% Inhalants 10.7% Sedatives 1.1% Cocaine 0.6% 18

19 MarijuanaSedatives Pain Relievers Cocaine LSDTranquilizersHeroinStimulantsEcstasy InhalantsOxyContin ® Past Year Initiates for Specific Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Numbers (in Thousands)

20 MarijuanaSedatives Inhalants Cocaine OxyContin ® LSDTranquilizersHeroinEcstasy Pain Relievers Stimulants Mean Age at First Use for Specific Illicit Drugs among Past Year Initiates Aged 12 to 49: Age in Years

21 Past Year Pain Reliever Initiation, Overall and with OxyContin ® or Morphine Use, among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percent of Population Pain Reliever Initiates with OxyContin ® Use Pain Reliever Initiates with Morphine Use Pain Reliever Initiates + Difference between this estimate and the 2007 estimate is statistically significant at the.05 level

22 Lifetime Use of Other Drugs among Past Year Nonmedical Pain Reliever Initiates, Age 12 or Older : Annual Averages, Percent of New Pain Reliever Users Tranqs, Seds, or Stims Nonmedically HallucinogensCocaineMarijuanaHeroin

23 Lifetime Use of Other Drugs among Past Year Nonmedical OxyContin ® Initiates, Age 12 or Older : Annual Averages, Percent of New OxyContin ® Users Tranqs, Seds, or Stims Nonmedically HallucinogensCocaineMarijuanaHeroin

24 Lifetime Use of Other Drugs among Past Year Nonmedical Pain Reliever Initiates Who Used Morphine, Age 12 or Older: Annual Averages, Percent of New Pain Reliever Users with Morphine Use Tranqs, Seds, or Stims Nonmedically HallucinogensCocaineMarijuanaHeroin

25 Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Other Pain Relievers among Past Year Nonmedical OxyContin ® Initiates, Age 12 or Older: Annual Averages, Percent Darvocet ®, Darvon ®, or Tylenol ® with Codeine Vicodin ®, Lortab ®, or Lorcet ® Percocet ®, Percodan ®, or Tylox ® Hydrocodone Codeine Morphine Methadone Demeral ®

26 Nonmedical OxyContin ® Use: Trends and Patterns

27 Trends in Past Year Indicators of Nonmedical Use of OxyContin ®, Ages 12 and Older: 2004 to Difference between this estimate and the 2007 estimate is statistically significant at the.05 level. Numbers (in Thousands)

28 OxyContin ® Use and Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse with OxyContin ® Use, by Age Group: Annual Averages, Past Year OxyContin ® Use Aged Aged Aged Aged Aged 50 or Older Past Year Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse, with OxyContin ® Use Percent

29 OxyContin ® Use and Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse with OxyContin ® Use, by Gender, Age 12+: Annual Averages Past Year Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse, with Nonmedical OxyContin ® Use Past Year Nonmedical OxyContin ® Use Percent

30 OxyContin ® Use and Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse with OxyContin ® Use, by Race/Ethnicity, Age 12+: Annual Averages, Past Year Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse, with Nonmedical OxyContin ® Use Past Year Nonmedical OxyContin ® Use Percent

31 OxyContin ® Use and Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse with OxyContin ® Use, by County Type, Age 12+: Annual Averages, Past Year Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse with Nonmedical OxyContin ® Use Past Year OxyContin ® Use Percent

32 OxyContin ® Use in Lifetime among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on NSDUHs 32 Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health,

33 Past Year Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Past Year Nonmedical Pain Reliever Users and Nonusers Aged 12 and Older: Annual Averages, Percent Using in Past Year MarijuanaCocaineHallucinogensHeroin

34 Dependence and Abuse Among Past Year Users of Selected Substances, Ages 12+: Annual Averages, Note: Percentages refer to dependence/abuse for each drug among past year users of that drug, except for OxyContin, which reflects pain reliever dependence/abuse among past year OxyContin users. Percentage of Past Year Users


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