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Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE) a Proposal for a SCAR Scientific Research Program by The Subglacial Antarctic Lake Exploration Group of Specialists.

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Presentation on theme: "Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE) a Proposal for a SCAR Scientific Research Program by The Subglacial Antarctic Lake Exploration Group of Specialists."— Presentation transcript:

1 Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE) a Proposal for a SCAR Scientific Research Program by The Subglacial Antarctic Lake Exploration Group of Specialists (SALEGOS)

2 The Time is Now for SALE History History Scientific Objectives Scientific Objectives Technological Feasibility Technological Feasibility Ten Year Timeline Ten Year Timeline International Participation International Participation SALE and SCARs Mission SALE and SCARs Mission SALE and the IPY SALE and the IPY

3 SAE data indicates that lakes may exist under the ice sheet (formalized Kapitsa et al. 1996) Russian pilots note unusually ice surface SAE seismic data - first evidence of liquid water lakes under the ice sheet Radio-echo sounding confirms a lake under Vostok Station The History of SALE – First Discovery

4 International workshop in Cambridge, UK formalizes Vostok data Discovery of L. Vostok first reported, SCAR, Rome Lake Vostok: Scientific Objectives and Technological Requirements: An International Workshop, St. Petersburg; Lake Vostok Workshop: A Curiosity or a Focus for Interdisciplinary Study, Washington D.C Workshop on Subglacial Lakes, Cambridge, UK The History of SALE – Renewed Interest Vostok Core

5 SCAR forms Group of Specialists on Subglacial Lake Exploration (SALEGOS) 2001 – 1 st meeting of SCAR SALEGOS in Bologna, Italy Subglacial Lake and Deep Ice Exploration: Canadian Expertise and International Opportunities, Ottawa, Canada; Life in Ancient Ice Workshop, Oregon, USA; Subglacial Lakes: Biology and Decontamination Issues SCAR, Amsterdam, Netherlands 2002 – 2nd and 3rd meeting of SALEGOS and NSF Fastdrill Workshop - LDEO, NY and Santa Cruz, CA USA International Planning

6 NSF Workshop to Define a Technology Roadmap for the Exploration and Sampling of Lake Vostok, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 4th and 5th meeting of SALEGOS - Chamonix, France; Bristol, England 2004 – 6th Meeting of SALEGOS - Bremen, Germany

7 SALE - Scientific Objectives To understand the formation and evolution of subglacial processes and environments; To understand the formation and evolution of subglacial processes and environments; To determine the origins, evolution, and maintenance of life in subglacial lake environments; and To determine the origins, evolution, and maintenance of life in subglacial lake environments; and To understand the limnology and paleoclimate history recorded in subglacial sediments. To understand the limnology and paleoclimate history recorded in subglacial sediments..

8 Subglacial Lake Environments are Widespread Vostok-Dome C Region

9 1A – Vostok Borehole and Ice Core Studies 1B – The Study of Analogue Settings 1C- Remote Sensing Surveys of Subglacial Lakes 1D – Modeling of Subglacial Lakes and Systems 2A - In situ Lake Observations 2B – Down-Ice Hole Studies Scientific ObjectivesCryobot Modern Velocities from GPS Samples 16, years old Phase 1 – Remote Studies – Accreted Ice, Modeling, and Remote Sensing Phase 2 – Deployment of Remotely Operated In Situ Observatories

10 Vostok Station McMurdo Station 179 meters Glacial ice 50nm 3556 meters Accretion ice 25nm 2749 meters Glacial ice 80nm Virus images courtesy J. Priscu Montana State University Artwork - NSF Glacial ice 25nm 1557 meters Life Under the Ice

11 3A - Survey and Inventory of Subglacial Lakes Phase 4 – Studies of Subglacial Lake Processes and Histories Scientific Objectives Phase 3 - Subglacial Lakes as Systems Hydrobot

12 Waterlock assembly Diverter/disconnect Downpipe ( 10m long) Cylindrical winch Upper ball valve Lower ball valve Completion drill / Cryobot/ROV Coiled Tubing Drill Probe prototype designed to withstand crushing pressures and extreme temperatures Cryobot - moves through ice by melting the surface directly in front of it Operational and Technological FeasibilityCryobot Hydrobot - self-propelled underwater vehicle that analyzes the chemical composition of the ice and water Hydrobot

13 TimeframeScientific MilestonesTechnological Milestones Short (0-3 years) Pre-Lake Entry and Survey Medium (3-6 years) Lake Entry Observatory Deployment Long (6-9 years) Lake Entry Critical Sample Retrieval Very Long (9+ years) Lake Entry Long Core Retrieval 1. Identification of a lead nation or at a minimum, the formation of an interim planning group charged with conducting a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the entire program. 2. Make funds and access to field logistics available to conduct surveys. 3. Convene a meeting of experts to develop decontamination standards and develop methods to monitor cleanliness. Examine the availability of funds to implement these developments. 4. Make funds available to develop clean methodologies, cleanliness testing methods (verification), and development of the infrastructure to handle and process samples in appropriately clean conditions to control and minimize contamination of samples with foreign materials. 5. Availability of funds to develop the next generation of assays and detection methodologies for extremophiles. 6. Convene a meeting of experts to assess the status of current technologies and compatibility with subglacial lake environments and access restrictions and provide plans for adapting the technologies as needed. Target indicators would be a relatively simple set of parameters currently measured on oceanographic moorings and buoys - temperature, pressure, salinity (conductivity), particulates, fluorescence, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen. Sediment penetrometer/shear vane and geothermal heat flow detectors should also be considered. 7. Make accreted ice samples available and provide funds to perform analyses in support of biological and geochemical objectives. 8. Availability of funds to support modeling of the subglacial lake system from local to regional spatial scales and recent to geological time scales. 9. Convene a meeting of experts to develop a long term plan for paleoclimate and geological studies of subglacial lakes. 10. Make funds available for development and feasibility testing of sensors and remote detect ion techniques for geochemistry and biology. Target indicators particulates, nutrients (N, P), DOC, bioparticles, bioreactive redox couples, microbes, and dissolved gases (CH4, CO2, H2S, N2O, Ar, O2). 11. Convene a meeting of experts to develop rigorous sample handling protocols base on experiences form Cape Roberts and the Ocean Drilling Project. 12. Make funds available to develop methodologies to determine the rates of critical biological processes. 13. Convene a meeting of experts to develop a long term plan for sustained presence in the lake. 14. Make funds available and field resources to implement the paleoclimate and geological sampling and analysis programs. 1. Identification of a lead nation or at a minimum, the formation of an interim planning group charged with conducting a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the entire program. 2. Convene a meeting of experts to develop decontamination standards and methods to monitor cleanliness. Identify potential funding sources to implement these developments. 3. Convene a meeting of experts to evaluate existing ice drilling technologies, assess the need for adaptation to subglacial lake environments and access restrictions, and develop a detailed needs analysis to provide the ice drilling platform, technology and infrastructure. 4. Provide funds to develop the subglacial lake ice drilling platform and equipment infrastructure including testing in analogue settings, refining operating protocols including the implementation of clean standards. 5. Convene a meeting of experts to assess the status of current technologies and compatibility with subglacial lake environments and access restrictions and provide plans for adapting the technologies as needed. Target indicators would be a relatively simple set of parameters currently measured on oceanographic mooring and buoys - temperature, pressure, salinity (conductivity), particulates, fluorescence, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen. 6. Makes funds available to develop observatory concepts and produce the equipment that will be deployed in the lakes. 7. Convene a meeting of experts to develop a detailed and specific plan for accelerated lake entry. 8. Make funds available to begin the field operations for drilling and lake entry (The Group recognizes that the international management structure and plan must be in place to proceed with on the ground operations - these needs will be addressed in separate deliberations). 9. Convene a meeting of experts to develop a detailed assessment and implementation plan for lake entry and sample retrieval 10. Convene a meeting of experts to assess technologies and develop a detailed implementation plan for lake entry and long geological core retrieval. 11. Convene a meeting of experts to develop a long term plan for sustained presence in the lakes. 12. Provide the funds and logistical support to implement the lake entry and initial sample retrieval plan. 13. Convene a meeting of experts to develop a decommissioning plan for the drill sites. 14. Make funds available and field resources to implement the plan for lake entry and long core retrieval, processing and analysis. SALE - Planning is Advanced. 14. Make funds available and field resources to implement the plan for lake entry and long core retrieval, processing and analysis. 14. Make funds available and field resources to implement the paleoclimate and geological sampling and analysis programs.

14 Years Subglacial Environments Exploration Timeline Key Milestones Existing Technologies Lake Entry Observatory Deployment Sample Retrieval Water/Shallow Sediment Retrieval Sample Retrieval Deep Coring +

15 International Participation UNified International Team for Exploration and Discovery (SALE- UNITED) J. C. Priscu, USA (limnology) (limnology) M.C. Kennicutt, USA (geochemistry) S. Bulat, Russia (molecular biology) J.C. Ellis-Evans, UK (limnology) Tabacco, Italy (glaciology) R. Bell, USA (geology) R. Powell, USA (sedimentology) V. Lukin, Russia (glaciology) J.R. Petit, France (glaciology) H. Miller, Germany (glaciology) M. Siegert, UK (glaciology)

16 Terms of Reference for SALE Guide the SRPs activities and encourage and facilitate communication Advise SCAR on SALE related issues. Promote data access, sharing and synthesis. Be an advocate and voice Promote and champion environmental stewardship Interact and coordinate with other SCAR SRPs Provide a focus for outreach Develop common protocols and standards of data collection and management

17 SALE and SCARs Mission International coordination with COSPAR and other bodies International coordination with COSPAR and other bodies Interdisciplinary in scope Interdisciplinary in scope Environmental stewardship Environmental stewardship Shared logistics through COMNAP Encourage National Committees to form Outreach

18 SALE and SCARs Mission Data management – web site, portal to member programs, agreed data management protocols and standards Data management – web site, portal to member programs, agreed data management protocols and standards Outreach and Education- web site, workshops, regular press releases, contact list for the press, publications Outreach and Education- web site, workshops, regular press releases, contact list for the press, publications Capacity Building – shared resources, modular approach allowing participation by all, workshops, seminars, team approach Capacity Building – shared resources, modular approach allowing participation by all, workshops, seminars, team approach SCAR leadership SCAR leadership

19 SALE in the IPY SALE in the IPY Requires a concerted international effort Requires a concerted international effort Environmental stewardship through careful planning Environmental stewardship through careful planning Major objectives are attainable in a few years time Major objectives are attainable in a few years time There is great public interest in SALE There is great public interest in SALE

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