Presentation on theme: "March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 1 doc.: IEEE 802.11-01/139 Submission Presentation for Proposed p-DCF Contention Access Enhancement."— Presentation transcript:
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 1 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Presentation for Proposed p-DCF Contention Access Enhancement Jin-Meng Ho, Sid Schrum, Khaled Turki Donald P. Shaver and Matthew B. Shoemake Texas Instruments Incorporated TI Blvd. Dallas, Texas (214) (Ho)
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 2 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission P-DCF uses one backoff timer per station, just like legacy DCF. –It does not stack multiple DCFs within each station. –It does not have the issue of checking, and resolving, simultaneous expiration of multiple backoff timers at any given station. P-DCF separates external behavior (access to medium) from internal behavior (selection from queues). –Each ESTA performs its external contention just as a legacy DCF station. –Multi-priority service per station appears as an internal enhancement to the legacy DCF MAC. P-DCF obeys DIFS usage as specified for legacy DCF. –No extra tiers of contention are required. –No new backoff countdown rules are specified. Outline
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 3 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Performance P-DCF achieves differentiated service for prioritized traffic. –Higher-priority data encounters smaller access delay than lower-priority data. –Lower-priority traffic is not starved nor suffers excessive access delay. P-DCF improves access delay over legacy/stacked DCF. –Higher-priority frames under P-DCF experience less delay than best-effort frames under legacy DCF. Not a case with stacked DCF. –Lower-priority frames under P-DCF experience the same delay as best-effort frames under legacy DCF. Lower-priority frames are starved under stacked DCF. P-DCF increases channel throughput compared to legacy/stacked DCF. –More bits per second can be transmitted per channel. –More stations and streams can be served per BSS.
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 4 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Element ID (12) Length (8) TCPP Values (TCPP 0, …, TCPP 7 ) (8 octets) ECA (Enhanced Contention Access) Parameter Set Traffic Category Permission Probabilities (TCPPs) –Each traffic category (TC) is assigned a TCPP. –A frame from TC i is transmitted with a probability = TCPP i (conceptually). –A frame from a WSTA is sent with a permission probability (PP) equal to the sum of the latest TCPPs for active local TCs (conceptually). Infrastructure Network –The hybrid coordinator (HC) regularly updates TCPPs for TCs of eight priorities and broadcasts them via an ECA Parameter Set element in beacons. –Update intervals of ms long are found to provide good performance. IBSS and Backup Contention Access –TCPPs are adjusted in a way similar to binary exponential backoff for DCF. Coordinated Contention
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 5 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission IBSS and Backup Contention Access –If an active WSTA is located in an IBSS, or if it has not received TCPP values for 50 TUs from the HC, it performs its contention for a frame transmission using the TCPP values calculated on its own: Any active local TC that has a non-zero TCPP value continues to have the same TCPP value until it has a frame transmitted. A local TC of priority i that has just successfully sent a frame has a TCPP value equal to TCPP i, max, where TCPP 0, max = 1/33, and TCPP i, max = 2/17, i = 1, 2, …7, if the channel is busy, and has a TCPP value equal to TCPP i,idle, where TCPP 0, idle = 1/4, and TCPP i, idle = 1/2, i = 1, 2, …7, if the channel is idle. A local TC of priority i that has a retried frame to send after a collision changes its TCPP value from TCPP i to max [TCPP i,min, 2 TCPP i / (4 – TCPP i )], where TCPP i, min = 2/1025, i = 0, 1, 2, …7. Once the WSTA receives new TCPP values from the HC, it reverts to the HC-coordinated contention by immediately adopting the new TCPP values. Distributed Contention
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 6 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission X P1 BC = 0 Idle Slot 1 X > P2 Idle Slot 1 X > P2 BC = 2 Idle Slot 2 X > P2 BC = 3 Idle Slot 3 X > P2 BC = 4 X > P3 BC = 1 Idle Slot 1 X P3 BC = 1 X > P2 BC = 1 Idle Slot 1 X > P2 BC = 2 Idle Slot 2 X P2 BC = 2 X > P2 BC = 1 X P1 BC = 0 X > P2 BC = 1 X > P2 BC = 2 X > P2 BC = 3 X > P2 BC = 4 X > P2 BC = 5 X > P2 BC = 6 X > P2 BC = 7 X P2 BC = 7 X > P3 BC = 1 X P3 BC = 1 X > P2 BC = 1 X > P2 BC = 2 X P2 BC = 2 PP = P1PP = P2PP = P3 BC: Backoff Counter (BC 255) Each X is a new pseudorandom number uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 Transmits Conceptual Persistent Contention Equivalent Backoff Setting Backoff Timer A WSTA uses its latest PP to (re)set its backoff timer. –Conceptually, it generates a new pseudorandom number, X, at each idle slot (or after a busy channel becomes idle) to decide whether to transmit or not. If X PP, the ESTA sends a frame at the beginning of the next slot. –Operationally, it repeats the above steps within a slot time to search for the equivalent backoff time and hence sets the backoff timer. Over expanded interval Over contracted interval Unexpired backoff timer Reset
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 7 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Stage Maximum-Length Linear-Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) Maximal-Length Linear-Feedback Shift Register Pseudorandom integer generation –Each shift of an m-stage maximum-length shift register produces an m-bit binary pseudorandom integer represented by the bits stored in the register. –The pseudorandom integers so generated are uniformly distributed over (0, 2 m ] and have a period of 2 m – 1. Pseudorandom number generation –Such pseudorandom integers divided by 2 m become pseudorandom numbers uniformly distributed over (0, 1]. –Pseudorandom numbers can be generated in this way as fast as the clock frequency. –Maximum-length shift registers are also widely used in generating CRC (FCS) parity check symbols.
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 8 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Frame Transmission Backoff Timer Setting and Countdown (Review of External Access) –A WSTA (re)sets its backoff timer by repetitive search for a pseudorandom number, X, such that X PP. –A WSTA decrements its backoff timer just as a DCF STA does, and hence uses the same station machine as for DCF. –A WSTA transmits a frame when its backoff timer expires. Local Selection (Internal Access) –A WSTA selects a frame for transmission from a local TC of priority k such that sum (TCPP 0, …, k – 1 ) < X sum (TCPP 0, …, k ). sum (TCPP 0, …, k ) = TCPP 0 + TCPP 1 + … + TCPP k, sum (TCPP k – 1 ) = 0 for k = 0, and TCPP j = 0 if TC of priority j is locally inactive. Retry –MIB attributes of aMaxTransmitMSDULifetime, dot11ShortRetryLimit, and dot11LongRetryLimit apply to frame transmissions from individual TCs. 01PP TCPP 0 TCPP 1 TCPP k TCPP 7 X...
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 10 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission TCPP Update and Load Control Control Criterion –Channel is optimally loaded /utilized when time on idles = time on collisions. Time on an idle = a slot time. Time on a collision = longest transmission time of colliding stations + Ack transmission time + SIFS + DIFS. Control Mechanism –HC decreases TCPPs if channel is overloaded and vice versa. –Contending WSTAs immediately respond to a change in TCPPs. Control Procedure –Compute the normalized difference, D = (T I - T C ) / T, between the time on idles, T I, and the time on collisions, T C, over the time, T, allocated to contention in the CP since the last time when a TCPP update was broadcast. –When D D 0 or when a beacon is to be sent, update TCPPs as follows: TCPP 0 TCPP 0 + G D, and TCPP k = C k TCPP 7, k =1, 2, …, 7, where D 0 and C k are preset numbers, and G is positive. Algorithm self-stabilizing: TCPP k, T C, D, TCPP k, and vice versa.
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 11 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Fairness –All TCs of equal priority transmit with the same TCPP. Anytime -- before or after collision. Anywhere -- at the same WSTA or at different WSTAs. Differentiation –Relative differentiation: Higher priority TCs contend with larger TCPPs. TC Access probability ~ TCPP. Lower priority TCs not starved. –Absolute differentiation: Some TCs may be stayed from contention. TCPPs for stayed TCs set to 0. Higher priority TCs not impacted by lower priority TCs. Minimum bandwidth guaranteed for selected TCs. Maximum bandwidth imposed on certain TCs. Collision avoidance enhanced. Collision resolution accelerated. Some stayed TCs served by contention-free access for better QoS support. Fairness and Differentiation
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 12 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission P-DCF (CSMA with Adaptive Contention) –No new IFS rules. –Single backoff timer per WSTA. –No internal conflicts. V-DCF (Stacked DCF) –New IFS rules. –Multiple backoff timers per WSTA. –Internal conflicts. Extra logic is required to detect and resolve internal collision. Implementation Complexity
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 13 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Backoff, Collision, and Delay Collision Access Delay Backoff Time Success Access Delay Backoff Time Success Backoff of Smaller Variation Backoff of Larger Variation Reducing Collision Reducing Access Delay/Jitter
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 14 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Channel busy Transmission of another frame Transmission of another frame Collision of other frames Transmission of frame 1 only Collision involving frame 1 Collision involving frame 1 Access Delay 1 Channel busy Collision involving frame 2 Access Delay 2Access Delay Jitter Backoff Time Backoff Jitter Channel busy Transmission of another frame Transmission of frame 1 only Collision involving frame 1 Access Delay 1 Channel busy Transmission of another frame Access Delay 2Access Delay Jitter Backoff Time Backoff Jitter Transmission of frame 2 only Delay Jitter < Backoff Jitter Delay Jitter > Backoff Jitter Transmission of another frame Transmission of frame 2 only Backoff of Smaller Variations Backoff of Larger Variations Backoff Delay/Variation versus Access Delay/Variation Access delay, and hence access delay variation, of a frame depends not only on backoff time and backoff variation but also on many other factors. Reducing collision (which causes long delay) is more effective in minimizing access delay and variation than reducing backoff delay or variation. A smaller backoff variation does not lead to a smaller access variation. A CSMA protocol with constant backoff (and hence zero backoff variation) is most likely to yield larger access delay and variation than a CSMA protocol with uniform backoff (and hence nonzero backoff variation).
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 15 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Operation recovered from congestion as frames exceeding retry counts were discarded. Access Delay and Variation (Simulation Result)
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 16 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission TCPP update per 20 ms interval Instantaneous Delays for 4-Priority P-DCF
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 17 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission TCPP update per 20 ms interval Average Delays for 4-Priority P-DCF
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 18 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Instantaneous Delays for 4-Priority V-DCF
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 19 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Average Delays for 4-Priority V-DCF
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 20 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission IEEE journals report adaptive contention (P-DCF) to achieve more than 30% throughput than binary exponential backoff. –PP in F. Cali, et al., Dynamic Tuning of the IEEE Protocol to Achieve a Theoretical Throughput Limit, IEEE INFOCOM98. –P in. F. Cali, et al., IEEE Protocol: Design and Performance Evaluation of an Adaptive Backoff Mechanism, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 8, Setp Our own simulations also show P-DCF to have significant throughput, delay, and jitter improvement over binary exponential backoff. –Adaptive contention is robust to PP miscalculations. – ms is adequate for TCPP updates. Performance improvement becomes even more substantial in high population areas such as in enterprise environments. –Binary exponential backoff begins to fail as user population increases. P-DCF Performance Improvement
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 21 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission CWmin = 31 slots for b –This appears to be a choice of the right tradeoff between minimizing idles and collisions for a CSMA based on binary exponential backoff rules. – Using smaller CWmin results in increased collisions while using larger CWmin leads to excessive idles for typical channel loads. Changing CWmin values without changing other CWs leads to worse throughput and delay performance for all priorities than legacy DCF. CWmin = 15 slots for a –Choosing CWmin of 7 and 3 for higher-priority TCs leads to intensive collision and diminished throughput. –Using CWmin of 31 and 63 for lower-priority TCs yields QoS service much worse than simply following legacy DCF. There is no much room for changing CWmin values under binary exponential backoff rules. Differentiation by CWmin?
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 22 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission … … … … … … … … … … Doubling CW for colliding TCs at low load unnecessarily delays frame transmission and decreases channel throughput. The leftover backoff times of various TCs are inestimable to EAP/HC at the time of setting new CWmins. Doubling CW for colliding TCs does not necessarily alleviate congestion state --collisions formed from past backoffs will still occur. Randomizing backoff times without drastically increasing CW at low load is adequate and improves delay and throughput performance. Setting CWmins without knowing leftover backoff times causes new frames to collide with backoff frames. Each collision costs much channel time, aggravates congestion state, and results in more collisions in the future. Doubling CW for colliding TCs substantially downgrades the access priority for both retried and new frames of those TCs, compared to frames of TCs not undergoing collision resolution. Resetting CWmins cannot stop collisions developed in the past and bound to occur in the future. CWmin update for new frame arrivals only Contention- based and contention- free transmissions Doubling CW for colliding TCs over- penalizes the colliding TCs, even more so for those that had collided before. Having multiple backoff timers per station makes delay and throughput ever more sensitive to CWmin values. Adaptation for CWmin?
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 23 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Just not desirable. –Lower-priority traffic suffers excessive delays. –Additional slots in expanded IFS wastes channel bandwidth. Especially so with HCF. –HC can do a much better job with tier access and absolute priority. –WSTAs using differing IFSs for prioritized access complicate their operation as well as HCs. Differentiation by IFS?
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 24 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Concluding Remarks Binary exponential backoff has been considerably criticized for its poor throughput and delay performance inside and outside 802. Adaptive contention has been investigated by several experts: –L. Kleinrock, inventor of the Internet technology. –F. Tobagi, author of CSMA and its various variants. –R. Gallager, communications and networking authority. Performance improvement from CSMA with adaptive contention (P- DCF) has been shown to be significant in the IEEE literature. –Increasing bandwidth demand warrants such an improvement. –QoS is better supported by an efficient protocol. Lessons have been learned from Ethernet and are worth learning. –CSMA/CD degrades rapidly in performance as node population increases. –CSMA without collision detection costs much more collision bandwidth, and hence performs even worse, than CSMA/CD. –Wireline Ethernet needs to become faster and faster. –Wireless LANs have scarce spectrum resources. –IC technology is much more advanced and affordable than 1970s when Ethernet was first developed.
March 2001 Jin-Meng Ho, et al., Texas InstrumentsSlide 25 doc.: IEEE /139 Submission Sample References Books: 1. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, NJ, 1992, Chapter A. S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, NJ, 1996, Chapter 4. Papers: 1. L. Kleinrock and/or F. Tobagi's CSMA and CSMA/CD papers published between F. Cali, et al., IEEE Protocol: Design and Performance Evaluation of an Adaptive Backoff Mechanism, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 8, Setp. 2000, pp F. Cali, et al., Dynamic Tuning of the IEEE Protocol to Achieve a Theoretical Throughput Limit, IEEE INFOCOM98, pp