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1 AEPs gridSMART sm Strategy & Technologies IEEE Meeting February 24, 2011 Richard Greer.

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Presentation on theme: "1 AEPs gridSMART sm Strategy & Technologies IEEE Meeting February 24, 2011 Richard Greer."— Presentation transcript:


2 1 AEPs gridSMART sm Strategy & Technologies IEEE Meeting February 24, 2011 Richard Greer

3 2 The Evolution of the Electric Utility System Before Smart Grid: One-way power flow, simple interactions After Smart Grid: Two-way power flow, multi-stakeholder interactions Adapted from EPRI Presentation by Joe Hughes NIST Standards Workshop April 28, 2008

4 3 AEPs Distribution Grid Management Infrastructure Transforming from Single Source Distribution Circuits to an Interconnected Grid with Multiple Sources, Real Time Visualization, Optimization, Automation, and Control. –Installation of a distribution management system (SCADA) and the development of a distribution energy management system with visualization tools for multi-source distribution operations. –Control of voltage and Var to maximize grid efficiency from the generator to the customer –Circuit reconfiguration to improve reliability and optimize circuit performance. –Accommodate and take full advantage of distributed energy sources including renewables, storage, customer generation, and demand response –Installation of remote sensors and automated control devices to provide real time analysis of the dispatch of multiple sources on a feeder

5 CYBER SECURITY FIREWALL Real Time and Historical Data Distribution Management System DSCADA Distribution Operations Center (DOC) Outage Management System (OMS) AMI Meters Distributed Energy Resources Distribution Automation Fault Locating Equipment Monitoring and Diagnostics gridManagement Analytics BACKHAUL COMMUNICATIONS

6 CYBER SECURITY FIREWALL Real Time and Historical Data BACKHAUL COMMUNICATIONS Real Time Distribution Management System DSCADA Outage Management System (OMS) gridManagement Analytics Distribution Operations Center (DOC) AMI Meters Distribution Automation Fault Locating Equipment Monitoring and Diagnostics Distributed Energy Resources Distributed Generation Energy Storage Demand Response Solar & Wind PHEVs Transformers Line Devices Insulators Conductors Circuit Reconfiguration Device Status Remote Operation Volt Var Control (IVVC) Fault Values Anticipation Indication Power Up Power Down PING Meter Events

7 CYBER SECURITY FIREWALL Real Time and Historical Data BACKHAUL COMMUNICATIONS Real Time Distribution Management System DSCADA Outage Management System (OMS) AMI Meters Customer Distribution Automation Fault Locating Equipment Monitoring and Diagnostics Distribution Operations Center (DOC) gridManagement Analytics Distribution Market Clearing (future) Operation Engineers Planning Engineers Transmission Co-Located Engineers Demand Response Analytics Reliability Engineers

8 7 AEP gridSMART Deployment Status AEP Texas – In Progress Approximately 1 million AMI meters In-home display devices Tariffs & programs to be offered by REPs Indiana Michigan Power (AEP) – In Service 10,000 AMI pilot program (GE meters) Distribution automation Programmable communicating thermostats Enhanced time-of-use tariffs Customer web portal for monitoring & management AEP Ohio – In Progress 110,000 AMI deployment in NE Columbus area Full suite of distribution automation technologies Advanced technology deployment (Energy storage, PHEVs) Enhanced time-of-use tariffs Home area networks & grid-friendly appliances

9 8 Automated Circuit Reconfiguration Utilizes communication and intelligent technology to minimize # of customers impacted by an outage can improve circuit reliability by 30 – 50% Can improve energy efficiency by notifying operations when a capacitor bank is abnormal Improves safety and efficiency for field employees by using SCADA for remote switching This technology has been evolving over several years and standards are being developed. Actual deployment still is limited in most utilities. AEP has deployed this technology on less than 2% of circuits. The potential for improving reliability and increasing energy efficiency of distribution circuits is high if more automation is deployed.

10 Station A B B B RR RR RR Station B Temporary Fault – Momentary Interruption

11 10 Operational Summary Traditional Circuit Temporary Fault – no sustained outage 600 Customers saw a short interruption (blink) MAIFI = 1 for these 600 customers

12 Station A B B B RR RR RR Station B Permanent Fault 600 Customers Outaged

13 12 Operational Summary Traditional Circuit Permanent Fault 1 Instantaneous and 2 time delay trips 600 Customers Outaged Circuit SAIFI = 600 / 900 = 0.67 System SAIFI = 600 / 2,700 = 0.22

14 Station A B B B RR RR RR Station B Permanent Fault With DA = 300 Customers Outaged R

15 14 Operational Summary Circuits With DA Permanent Fault 1 Instantaneous and 2 time delay trips DA Reconfigured Circuits 600 Customers saw short interruptions (blinks) 300 Customers Outaged Circuit SAIFI = 300 / 900 = 0.33 System SAIFI = 300 / 2,700 = 0.11 MAIFI for 300 Customers = 1

16 15 GE Hydran M2: An intelligent, on- line transformer monitoring system that provides: –Per phase real time load, –Per phase winding temperatures, –Transformer top oil temperature, –The level of combustible gases and moisture in dielectric oil, –Oil bubbling temperature, –Aging rate and early detection of incipient faults in station transformers. 73 units installed Visible via SCADA and PI Historian Transformer Diagnostics & Monitoring

17 16 Utility Voltage / Var Control: 1.Projected benefits of 2% demand and energy reduction are highly predictable because customer consumption is reduced with no action required on their part. 2.The technology optimizes power factor and voltage levels based on selected parameters a.Power factors close to unity minimize losses and relieve transmission congestion b.Projected response is a 0.7% demand / energy reduction for each 1% volt reduction c.Projected result is 2 - 4% demand and energy reduction 3.Utilizes communications and computerized intelligence to control voltage regulators and capacitors on the distribution system 4.Algorithm uses end of line monitoring feedback to ensure minimum required voltage maintained AEP Ohio Demonstration Projects: 1.Equipment deployment and demonstration of Volt Var Control technologies a.GE IVVC – 5 Stations (4 -34KV & KV Circuits) b.AdaptiVolt – 1 Station (6 – 13KV Circuits) 2.Independent analysis by Battelle of theoretical and measured results – Expect savings of MW, MWH, MVAR, and MVARH a.Analysis of financial benefits of MW, MWH, MVAR, and MVARH savings b.Projections of system wide benefits Utility VVC can achieve predictable EE/DR and emission reduction goals AEPs Volt Var Control Technologies

18 17 KVA Reduction = 325 KVA (8.4%) if pf = 1.0 ( ) Estimated Benefits with GE IVVC on Karl Road 12 kV Feeder Demand Reduction = 88 KVA (2.1%) if voltage reduced 3% Energy Reduction = 52 KW * 8760 = 455 MWH if voltage Reduced 3%

19 18 Voltage Range Goals ANSI Standard C 84.1 – 1995 Electrical Power Systems and Equipment – Voltage Ratings [similar to CAN3-C (R2000)] –Nominal 120 VAC – Range A (Normal Operation) Service Voltage 114 v – 126 v – Voltage at which utility delivers power to home Utilization Voltage 110v – 126 v – Voltage at which equipment uses power – Optimum voltage for most motors rated at 115 v – Incandescent Lamps rated at 120 v –Nominal 120 VAC – Range B (Out of Normal Operation) Service Voltage 110 v – 127 v Utilization Voltage 106v – 127 v A ServiceA UtilizationB Utilization Volts at Residential Meter: Historical Voltage Range IVVC Range B Service (Adapitvolt estimates)

20 19 East Broad Station – Volt Var Control

21 20 East Broad – 1406 Geographic Layout Substation EOL 56 EOL 55 EOL 57 CAP 1 CAP 2 CAP 3 CAP 4 REG 1 REG 2

22 21 East Broad – 1406 Voltage Profile Substation EOL 55 CAP 1 CAP 3 CAP 4 REG 1 REG 2 CAP 2

23 22 East Broad – 1408 Geographic Layout EOL 64 EOL 63 Substation CAP 1 CAP 2

24 23 East Broad – 1408 Voltage Profile EOL 63 EOL 64 Substation CAP 2 CAP 1

25 24 Battelle Study – Initial Projections on 8 GE CVVC Circuits Projected Peak Demand Reduction 3% Projected Energy Reduction 3.3%

26 25 Volt VAR Control can reduce customer consumption and energy cost 123 Volts 119 Volts 1,055.6 KW 607,600 kwh $43,740 / mo 1, KW 595,448 kwh $42,873 / mo

27 26 Challenges Near Real Time Operation requires highly reliable communication Vendor solutions for VVC are still evolving Finding balance point for investment in circuit upgrades vs. control systems Understanding how technical benefits translate into financial benefits Determining appropriate regulatory recovery strategy Communicating that demand and energy reductions are mostly due to reduced consumption and the loss reduction piece is small

28 27 AEPs gridSMART Advanced Technologies Distributed Renewable Generation 70 KW photovoltaic panels installed on roofs of AEP Service Centers in Newark,OH and Athens,OH [70 KW X 2 = 140KW] R&D project comparing traditional PV to concentrated PV at AEPs Dolan Engineering lab (Groveport, OH)

29 28 Plug-in Electric Vehicles and Infrastructure Corporate Strategy and Readiness AEP strongly supports and promotes the adoption of PEV technology Developing consumer programs (system-wide) which may include EV-Friendly rates and incentives. Working with various stakeholders in all AEP states to ensure greatest consumer experience. PEV Demonstration – Columbus, Ohio ( ) Deploying 10 PEVs and 15 charging stations to AEP employees living in the demo area. Collecting and analyzing driving/charging behaviors and potential impact to grid. Utilizing smart charging to reduce impact. Vehicles will include Chevy Volts, Smart EVs, Ford Escape PHEV, 2 Prius converted to PHEV

30 29 AEPs gridSMART Advanced Technologies Substation Scale Battery 2006: 1 MW, 7.2 MWh; Deferred substation upgrade in Charleston, WV 2008: Three installations; 2 MW, 14.4 MWh each; With islanding in Bluffton,OH; Balls Gap,WV; East Busco,IN 2010: 4MW, 25MWh; To be installed in Presidio, TX Community Energy Storage Small distributed energy storage units connected to the secondary of transformers serving a few houses or commercial loads. Pursuing development & deployment:

31 AEPs (NaS) Battery Application 1 MW, 7.2 MWh installed in Chemical Station (Charleston, WV ) Deferred substation upgrades Three installations in 2008 (2 MW Each) Peak Shaving Demonstrate Islanding Storage of intermittent renewables Sub-transmission support ºC AEP selected Sodium Sulfur (NaS) technology Proven technology in Japan (TEPCO) 1-10 MW, 4-8 hour storage systems NaS strengths: Commercial record over 1MW (over 100 installations) Cost Compactness Modularity & Ability to be relocated

32 31 AEP NaS Application #1

33 32 Bluffton, OH NaS 2 MW in Service

34 AEP 2006 Project – Performance Data Scheduled trapezoidal Charge & Discharge profiles Improved the feeder load factor by 5% (from 75% to 80%) MW Charge MW Discharge Three Successful Years of Peak Shaving

35 34 NaS Islanding – S&C IntelliTEAM II

36 35 Community Energy Storage (CES) serving a few houses CES is a small distributed energy storage unit connected to the secondary of transformers serving a few houses or small commercial loads Key ParametersValue Power (active and reactive) 25 kVA Energy75 kWh Voltage - Secondary240 / 120V Battery - PHEVLi-Ion Round Trip AC Energy Efficiency > 85% AEP Specifications for CES is OPEN SOURCE for Public Use and Feedback. EPRI is hosting free, open webcasts to solicit industry wide input. 25 KVA

37 CES: 2MW/2MWh; Fleet of kW Units Circuit: Morse Rd 5801; 13 kV, 6.3 MVA Peak Load, 1742 customers Coverage: Approximately 20% of customers Schedule: Aug 2010 Test Prototypes Apr 2011 First 0.5MW Oct 2011 Remaining 1.5MW Status: Jun 2010 – Prototype under construction North AEP Ohio GridSMART Demonstration - CES Morse Rd 5801

38 37 CES is a distributed fleet of small energy storage units connected to the secondary of transformers serving a few houses or small commercial loads. STATION Community Energy Storage (CES) CES

39 38 CES Layout

40 39 CES – Virtual Station Scale Storage Local Benefits: 1) Backup power 2) Flicker Mitigation 3) Renewable Integration Substation Power Lines Communication and Control Links CES CES is Operated as a Fleet offering a Multi-MW, Multi-hour Storage

41 40 Communication & Control Layout for CES CES Control Hub Substation Power Lines Communication and Control Links Operations Center CES CES is Operated as a Fleet offering a Multi-MW, Multi-hour Storage Grid Benefits: 4) Load Leveling at substation 5) Power Factor Correction 6) Ancillary services Local Benefits: 1) Backup power 2) Flicker Mitigation 3) Renewable Integration CES – Virtual Station Scale Storage

42 41 CES Control Environment CES Controller DA Controller VV Controller Regional (Station) D-SCADA RTU T-SCADA RTU Mesh Network (DNP) CES Unit Recloser Switch Capacitor Regulator Feeder Devices HAN (Zigbee / HomePlug) Customer Display Water Heater HVAC Thermostat Customer Devices PEV Smart Charger Backhaul (Fiber and other) Enterprise Systems D-SCADAMDM (Meter) CIS (Customer) GIS (Asset) OMS (Outage) History Archives T-SCADACES Management DWM (Work) Revenue Meter AMI Head-end

43 42 Circuit Load Leveling Example Circuit Demand

44 43 Set Points: Start Time (same for all days) Minimum Demand below which no energy should be discharged 2:00 pm Day2 2:00 pm Day1 2:00 pm Day3 No Discharge on Low demands Minimum Demand at for discharge Time Triggered Load Following

45 44 Set Trigger Level Inadequate energy on high-peak days makes peak shaving ineffective Load Leveling Challenge – perfect timing

46 45 MorningNoon Evening Midnight Trigger Level for Discharge Trigger Level for Charge Circuit Feeder's charge and discharge needs are assessed periodically and divided among CES Units on the circuit feeder Feeder Load CES # 1 CES # 2 CES # 3 Feeder level demand profile showing CES Unit charge and discharge Load Leveling – Spread Across the CES Fleet

47 46 Each customer connected to the CES Unit gets a fair share of available stored energy at the time an outage occurs. CES goes into backup (island) mode 1.Establish the island, calculate available energy per locally connected customer; x kWh 2.Instruct each locally connected meter to initiate energy limiting; allow x kWh 3.If a customer reaches energy allocation, x kWh, the meter opens its disconnect switch CES Energy Allocation during backup

48 47 CES returns from backup (island) mode when the circuit returns to normal (system is stable for 5 minutes) 1.CES synchronizes and reconnects to circuit, closed transition 2.CES cancels energy allocation instruction to each locally connected meter 3.Each open meter closes the disconnect switch {unless there was another active command to open} CES Energy Allocation - Return

49 48 CES Customer Interface Challenges Another box in the yard, installation Equipment access for maintenance Transformer has 4 customers, 2 are interested Reliability is not really a problem My neighbor will use all the energy

50 49 Transforming to a Smart Grid Engineer Distribution Engineers will need new skills to plan for stations and circuits utilizing DA, IVVC, DG, and other new technologies. Planning and protection studies will be more complex Distribution Engineers will also have access to new data to help analyze system performance and validate the results of studies. –An interesting example is the ability to collect data on the performance of Distributed Generation (DG) and validate the DGs impact on the system during abnormal conditions. –This type of analysis should lead to higher confidence levels for Distribution Engineers charged with assuring proper operation of their circuits while accommodating and taking advantage of DG in a Smart Grid world

51 50 Summary Customers will see higher reliability and more opportunity to control their energy usage and cost. Utility employees will have new systems to learn, new responsibilities, and much more information about system operation than they have ever had. The public at large should see environmental benefits as a Smart Grid helps reduce emissions from generating plants by helping control demand and energy usage while still assuring the customers needs for energy are met.

52 51 Richard Greer – AEP – Questions?

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