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AEP’s gridSMARTsm Strategy & Technologies

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Presentation on theme: "AEP’s gridSMARTsm Strategy & Technologies"— Presentation transcript:

1 AEP’s gridSMARTsm Strategy & Technologies
IEEE Meeting February 24, 2011 Richard Greer

2 The Evolution of the Electric Utility System
Before Smart Grid: One-way power flow, simple interactions After Smart Grid: Two-way power flow, multi-stakeholder interactions Adapted from EPRI Presentation by Joe Hughes NIST Standards Workshop April 28, 2008

3 AEP’s Distribution “Grid Management” Infrastructure
Transforming from Single Source Distribution Circuits to an Interconnected Grid with Multiple Sources, Real Time Visualization, Optimization, Automation, and Control. Installation of a distribution management system (SCADA) and the development of a distribution energy management system with visualization tools for “multi-source” distribution operations. Control of voltage and Var to maximize grid efficiency from the generator to the customer Circuit reconfiguration to improve reliability and optimize circuit performance. Accommodate and take full advantage of distributed energy sources including renewables, storage, customer generation, and demand response Installation of remote sensors and automated control devices to provide “real time” analysis of the dispatch of multiple sources on a feeder Specific grid management activities already underway: A distribution management system - D SCADA with visualization tools (ENMAC installed in I&M, planned for AEP Ohio); Development of a distribution energy management system (a gap today); Station diagnostics & monitoring equipment (transformer units installed to monitor 44 "watch list" units); Voltage and var control schemes (three vendors identified and field installations underway); Deployment of higher efficiency station and line transformers; Distribution automation for reliability improvement; NaS battery installations with islanding capabilities; Use of fault anticipation and location technology to improve operations; Use technology to optimize DG, NaS and community energy storage; Use of technology to limit fault stress on transformers; Integration of distributed "utility scale" and "customer scale" Solar and Wind generation on distribution feeders; Expansion of EPRI "green circuit" concepts, including the use of Open Distribution System Simulation modeling tool.

4 Distribution Operations Center (DOC)
Distribution Management System DSCADA Outage Management System (OMS) CYBER SECURITY FIREWALL Real Time BACKHAUL COMMUNICATIONS Real Time and Historical Data Distributed Energy Resources Fault Locating Distribution Automation Equipment Monitoring and Diagnostics AMI Meters gridManagement Analytics

5 Distribution Operations Center (DOC)
Distribution Management System DSCADA Outage Management System (OMS) Distributed Generation Energy Storage Demand Response Solar & Wind PHEVs Transformers Line Devices Insulators Conductors Power Up Power Down PING Meter Events CYBER SECURITY FIREWALL Real Time BACKHAUL COMMUNICATIONS Equipment Monitoring and Diagnostics Distribution Automation Distributed Energy Resources Fault Locating AMI Meters Real Time and Historical Data Circuit Reconfiguration Device Status Remote Operation Volt Var Control (IVVC) Fault Values Anticipation Indication gridManagement Analytics

6 gridManagement Analytics
Distribution Operations Center (DOC) Distribution Management System DSCADA Outage Management System (OMS) CYBER SECURITY FIREWALL Real Time BACKHAUL COMMUNICATIONS Real Time and Historical Data Demand Response Analytics Reliability Engineers Customer Fault Locating Distribution Automation Equipment Monitoring and Diagnostics AMI Meters gridManagement Analytics Planning Engineers Operation Engineers Transmission Co-Located Engineers Distribution Market Clearing (future)

7 AEP gridSMART Deployment Status
Indiana Michigan Power (AEP) – In Service 10,000 AMI pilot program (GE meters) Distribution automation Programmable communicating thermostats Enhanced time-of-use tariffs Customer web portal for monitoring & management AEP Ohio – In Progress 110,000 AMI deployment in NE Columbus area Full suite of distribution automation technologies Advanced technology deployment (Energy storage, PHEVs) Enhanced time-of-use tariffs Home area networks & grid-friendly appliances AEP Texas – In Progress Approximately 1 million AMI meters In-home display devices Tariffs & programs to be offered by REPs Takeaway: AEP is pursuing several large-scale gridSMART deployments across our jurisdictions Most significantly are AEP’s: (1) Smart Grid pilot demonstration in South Bend Indiana, (2) the first-phase of a complete gridSMART deployment starting in NE Columbus, and (3) our complete AMI deployment project in AEP Texas service territory AEP Ohio ‘Full-suite’ of Distribution Automation technologies include: Distribution protection equipment (breakers and reclosers), Switches, Capacitor banks, Voltage regulators This equipment allows for: Circuit reconfiguration Circuit optimization Real-time monitoring and diagnostics of equipment Fault location identification

8 Automated Circuit Reconfiguration
Utilizes communication and intelligent technology to minimize # of customers impacted by an outage can improve circuit reliability by 30 – 50% Can improve energy efficiency by notifying operations when a capacitor bank is abnormal Improves safety and efficiency for field employees by using SCADA for remote switching This technology has been evolving over several years and standards are being developed. Actual deployment still is limited in most utilities. AEP has deployed this technology on less than 2% of circuits. The potential for improving reliability and increasing energy efficiency of distribution circuits is high if more automation is deployed.

9 Station A B R R B R R Station B B R R
Temporary Fault – Momentary Interruption Station A 900 B R R 300 300 300 900 B R R 300 300 300 Station B 300 900 B R R 300 300

10 Temporary Fault – no sustained outage
Operational Summary Traditional Circuit Temporary Fault – no sustained outage 600 Customers saw a short interruption (blink) MAIFI = 1 for these 600 customers

11 Station A B R R B R R Station B B R R Permanent Fault
600 Customers Outaged Station A 900 B R R 300 300 300 900 B R R 300 300 300 Station B 300 900 B R R 300 300

12 1 Instantaneous and 2 time delay trips 600 Customers Outaged
Operational Summary Traditional Circuit Permanent Fault 1 Instantaneous and 2 time delay trips 600 Customers Outaged Circuit SAIFI = 600 / 900 = 0.67 System SAIFI = 600 / 2,700 = 0.22

13 Station A B R R R B R R Station B B R R Permanent Fault
With DA = 300 Customers Outaged Station A 900 B R R 300 300 300 R 900 B R R 300 300 300 Station B 300 900 B R R 300 300

14 Operational Summary Circuits With DA Permanent Fault 1 Instantaneous and 2 time delay trips DA Reconfigured Circuits 600 Customers saw short interruptions (blinks) 300 Customers Outaged Circuit SAIFI = 300 / 900 = 0.33 System SAIFI = 300 / 2,700 = 0.11 MAIFI for 300 Customers = 1

15 Transformer Diagnostics & Monitoring
GE Hydran M2: An intelligent, on-line transformer monitoring system that provides: Per phase real time load, Per phase winding temperatures, Transformer top oil temperature, The level of combustible gases and moisture in dielectric oil, Oil bubbling temperature, Aging rate and early detection of incipient faults in station transformers. 73 units installed Visible via SCADA and PI Historian

16 Utility VVC can achieve predictable EE/DR and emission reduction goals
AEP’s Volt Var Control Technologies Utility Voltage / Var Control: Projected benefits of 2% demand and energy reduction are highly predictable because customer consumption is reduced with no action required on their part. The technology optimizes power factor and voltage levels based on selected parameters Power factors close to unity minimize losses and relieve transmission congestion Projected response is a 0.7% demand / energy reduction for each 1% volt reduction Projected result is 2 - 4% demand and energy reduction Utilizes communications and computerized intelligence to control voltage regulators and capacitors on the distribution system Algorithm uses end of line monitoring feedback to ensure minimum required voltage maintained AEP Ohio Demonstration Projects: Equipment deployment and demonstration of Volt Var Control technologies GE IVVC – 5 Stations (4 -34KV & KV Circuits) AdaptiVolt – 1 Station (6 – 13KV Circuits) Independent analysis by Battelle of theoretical and measured results – Expect savings of MW, MWH, MVAR, and MVARH Analysis of financial benefits of MW, MWH, MVAR, and MVARH savings Projections of system wide benefits Benefits: Improved Var Control on Distribution Circuits Reduces distribution losses Reduces transmission congestion due to Var flow. Reduced loading extends life of equipment Allows more power to be generated with the same generation capacity and fuel – theoretical and still to be proven Voltage Reduction Conservative projection is 3% voltage reduction causing 2.1% MW demand reduction and a similar or better reduction in MVAR demand Can be utilized at all times to reduce energy consumption leading to lower fuel expense and reduced emissions – Must recognize / mitigate corresponding revenue reductions Project Distinction: Benefits of this project are highly predictable because demand reductions and energy efficiency are achieved with no action required by the customer These demand response benefits are independent of and complimentary to the more traditional customer driven demand response programs This project is distinguished from other industry approaches because it includes validating the reductions that can be achieved and determining how to financially value the reductions Utility VVC can achieve predictable EE/DR and emission reduction goals

17 Estimated Benefits with GE IVVC on Karl Road 12 kV Feeder
Demand Reduction = 88 KVA (2.1%) if voltage reduced 3% KVA Reduction = 325 KVA (8.4%) if pf = 1.0 ( ) Energy Reduction = 52 KW * 8760 = 455 MWH if voltage Reduced 3%

18 Voltage Range Goals Volts at Residential Meter:
ANSI Standard C 84.1 – 1995 “Electrical Power Systems and Equipment – Voltage Ratings” [similar to CAN3-C (R2000)] Nominal 120 VAC – Range A (Normal Operation) Service Voltage 114 v – 126 v Voltage at which utility delivers power to home Utilization Voltage 110v – 126 v Voltage at which equipment uses power Optimum voltage for most motors rated at 115 v Incandescent Lamps rated at 120 v Nominal 120 VAC – Range B (Out of Normal Operation) Service Voltage 110 v – 127 v Utilization Voltage 106v – 127 v Historical Voltage Range 128 124 “A” Service “B” Service 120 “A” Utilization “B” Utilization 116 112 IVVC Range 108 104 (Adapitvolt estimates)

19 East Broad Station – Volt Var Control

20 East Broad – 1406 Geographic Layout
REG 1 CAP 2 CAP 1 Substation EOL 55 EOL 57 CAP 3 EOL 56 REG 2 CAP 4

21 East Broad – 1406 Voltage Profile
EOL 55 CAP 1 CAP 2 REG 1 CAP 3 REG 2 CAP 4 Substation

22 East Broad – 1408 Geographic Layout
Substation EOL 64 CAP 1 EOL 63 CAP 2

23 East Broad – 1408 Voltage Profile
EOL 64 Substation CAP 1 CAP 2 EOL 63

24 Battelle Study – Initial Projections on 8 GE CVVC Circuits
Projected Peak Demand Reduction 3% Projected Energy Reduction 3.3%

25 Volt VAR Control can reduce customer consumption and energy cost
123 Volts 119 Volts 1,055.6 KW 607,600 kwh $43,740 / mo 1, KW 595,448 kwh $42,873 / mo

26 Challenges “Near Real Time Operation” requires highly reliable communication Vendor solutions for VVC are still evolving Finding balance point for investment in circuit upgrades vs. control systems Understanding how technical benefits translate into financial benefits Determining appropriate regulatory recovery strategy Communicating that demand and energy reductions are mostly due to reduced consumption and the loss reduction piece is small

27 AEP’s gridSMART Advanced Technologies
Distributed Renewable Generation 70 KW photovoltaic panels installed on roofs of AEP Service Centers in Newark,OH and Athens,OH [70 KW X 2 = 140KW] R&D project comparing traditional PV to concentrated PV at AEP’s Dolan Engineering lab (Groveport, OH) Takeaway: AEP’s gridSMART initiative goes beyond ‘smart meters’ – to enabling the deployment of advanced technologies to transform the supply/management/delivery of energy across a new interactive grid.

28 Plug-in Electric Vehicles and Infrastructure
Corporate Strategy and Readiness AEP strongly supports and promotes the adoption of PEV technology Developing consumer programs (system-wide) which may include “EV-Friendly” rates and incentives. Working with various stakeholders in all AEP states to ensure greatest consumer experience. PEV Demonstration – Columbus, Ohio ( ) Deploying 10 PEVs and 15 charging stations to AEP employees living in the demo area. Collecting and analyzing driving/charging behaviors and potential impact to grid. Utilizing “smart charging” to reduce impact. Vehicles will include Chevy Volts, Smart EVs, Ford Escape PHEV, 2 Prius converted to PHEV Takeaway: AEP’s gridSMART initiative goes beyond ‘smart meters’ – to enabling the deployment of advanced technologies to transform the supply/management/delivery of energy across a new interactive grid.

29 AEP’s gridSMART Advanced Technologies
Substation Scale Battery 2006: 1 MW, 7.2 MWh; Deferred substation upgrade in Charleston, WV 2008: Three installations; 2 MW, 14.4 MWh each; With “islanding” in Bluffton,OH; Balls Gap,WV; East Busco,IN 2010: 4MW, 25MWh; To be installed in Presidio, TX Community Energy Storage Small distributed energy storage units connected to the secondary of transformers serving a few houses or commercial loads. Pursuing development & deployment: Takeaway (same as previous slide / material continued) Benefits include: Backup power Voltage regulation Load leveling Power factor correction Ancillary services market support

30 AEP’s (NaS) Battery Application
1 MW, 7.2 MWh installed in Chemical Station (Charleston, WV ) Deferred substation upgrades Three installations in 2008 (2 MW Each) Peak Shaving Demonstrate “Islanding” Storage of intermittent renewables Sub-transmission support ºC AEP selected Sodium Sulfur (NaS) technology Proven technology in Japan (TEPCO) 1-10 MW, 4-8 hour storage systems NaS strengths: Commercial record over 1MW (over 100 installations) Cost Compactness Modularity & Ability to be relocated AEP Goals behind its Energy Storage Initiative Long-Term Economics Mitigating future challenges to the grid – New opportunities Improve System Reliability Prepare AEP grid for large penetration of renewable sources Improve utilization of AEP grid (flattened load) AEP Current Projects 2008 – 6 MW in three states ( OH, IN, WV) 2009 – 4 MW in Texas AEP News Release – September 2007 Energy Storage is a key to the initiative for modernizing our grid 25 MW more to be installed by the end of this decade Positioning the grid business in a sustainable format

31 AEP NaS Application #1

32 Bluffton, OH NaS 2 MW in Service

33 AEP 2006 Project – Performance Data
Scheduled trapezoidal Charge & Discharge profiles Improved the feeder load factor by 5% (from 75% to 80%) + 1.2 MW Charge - 1.0 MW Discharge Three Successful Years of Peak Shaving 2008 2007

34 NaS Islanding – S&C IntelliTEAM II

35 EPRI is hosting free, open webcasts to solicit industry wide input.
Community Energy Storage (CES) CES is a small distributed energy storage unit connected to the secondary of transformers serving a few houses or small commercial loads Key Parameters Value Power (active and reactive) 25 kVA Energy 75 kWh Voltage - Secondary 240 / 120V Battery - PHEV Li-Ion Round Trip AC Energy Efficiency > 85% 25 KVA AEP Specifications for CES is “OPEN SOURCE” for Public Use and Feedback. EPRI is hosting free, open webcasts to solicit industry wide input.

36 AEP Ohio GridSMART Demonstration - CES
North CES: 2MW/2MWh; Fleet of kW Units Circuit: Morse Rd 5801; 13 kV, 6.3 MVA Peak Load, 1742 customers Coverage: Approximately 20% of customers Schedule: Aug Test Prototypes Apr First 0.5MW Oct Remaining 1.5MW Status: Jun 2010 – Prototype under construction Morse Rd 5801

37 Community Energy Storage (CES)
CES is a distributed fleet of small energy storage units connected to the secondary of transformers serving a few houses or small commercial loads. STATION CES CES CES CES

38 CES Layout

39 CES – Virtual Station Scale Storage
CES is Operated as a Fleet offering a Multi-MW, Multi-hour Storage Local Benefits: 1) Backup power 2) Flicker Mitigation 3) Renewable Integration Substation CES Power Lines Communication and Control Links

40 Communication & Control Layout for CES
CES – Virtual Station Scale Storage CES is Operated as a Fleet offering a Multi-MW, Multi-hour Storage Local Benefits: 1) Backup power 2) Flicker Mitigation 3) Renewable Integration Grid Benefits: 4) Load Leveling at substation 5) Power Factor Correction 6) Ancillary services Operations Center CES Control Hub Communication & Control Layout for CES Substation CES CES CES CES Power Lines Communication and Control Links

41 CES Control Environment
Enterprise Systems CIS (Customer) GIS (Asset) AMI Head-end History Archives DWM (Work) OMS (Outage) D-SCADA CES Management MDM (Meter) T-SCADA Backhaul (Fiber and other) CES Controller DA VV Regional (Station) D-SCADA RTU T-SCADA Mesh Network (DNP) CES will share the Grid Management environment with other systems such as Circuit Reconfiguration and Volt Var optimization Challenges: Uniformity of procedures, interfaces Sharing communications; bandwidth limitations, reliability, priority CES Unit Recloser Switch Capacitor Regulator Feeder Devices HAN (Zigbee / HomePlug) Customer Display Water Heater HVAC Thermostat PEV Smart Charger Revenue Meter

42 Circuit Load Leveling Example
Circuit Demand

43 Start Time (same for all days)
Time Triggered Load Following Set Points: Start Time (same for all days) Minimum Demand below which no energy should be discharged 2:00 pm Day2 Day1 Day3 No Discharge on Low demands Minimum Demand at for discharge

44 Inadequate energy on high-peak days makes peak shaving ineffective
Load Leveling Challenge – perfect timing Set Trigger Level Inadequate energy on high-peak days makes peak shaving ineffective

45 Feeder level demand profile showing CES Unit charge and discharge
Load Leveling – Spread Across the CES Fleet Morning Noon Evening Midnight Trigger Level for Discharge Trigger Level for Charge Circuit Feeder's charge and discharge needs are assessed periodically and divided among CES Units on the circuit feeder Feeder Load CES # 1 # 2 # 3 Feeder level demand profile showing CES Unit charge and discharge

46 CES Energy Allocation during backup
Each customer connected to the CES Unit gets a fair share of available stored energy at the time an outage occurs. CES goes into backup (island) mode Establish the island, calculate available energy per locally connected customer; x kWh Instruct each locally connected meter to initiate energy limiting; allow x kWh If a customer reaches energy allocation, x kWh, the meter opens its disconnect switch

47 CES Energy Allocation - Return
CES returns from backup (island) mode when the circuit returns to normal (system is stable for 5 minutes) CES synchronizes and reconnects to circuit, closed transition CES cancels energy allocation instruction to each locally connected meter Each open meter closes the disconnect switch {unless there was another active command to open}

48 CES Customer Interface Challenges
Another box in the yard, installation Equipment access for maintenance Transformer has 4 customers, 2 are interested Reliability is not really a problem My neighbor will use all the energy

49 Transforming to a Smart Grid Engineer
Distribution Engineers will need new skills to plan for stations and circuits utilizing DA, IVVC, DG, and other new technologies. Planning and protection studies will be more complex Distribution Engineers will also have access to new data to help analyze system performance and validate the results of studies. An interesting example is the ability to collect data on the performance of Distributed Generation (DG) and validate the DG’s impact on the system during abnormal conditions. This type of analysis should lead to higher confidence levels for Distribution Engineers charged with assuring proper operation of their circuits while accommodating and taking advantage of DG in a Smart Grid world

50 Summary Customers will see higher reliability and more opportunity to control their energy usage and cost. Utility employees will have new systems to learn, new responsibilities, and much more information about system operation than they have ever had. The public at large should see environmental benefits as a Smart Grid helps reduce emissions from generating plants by helping control demand and energy usage while still assuring the customers’ needs for energy are met.

51 Richard Greer – AEP – ragreer@aep.com
Questions? Richard Greer – AEP –


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