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Some Guiding Thoughts on Science Education

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1 Some Guiding Thoughts on Science Education
Christie Brown, MELS IEEE Region 7 Meeting Montreal, Quebec May 16, 2009

2 Objectives To provide an overview the science and technology curriculum in Quebec. To share some of the challenges that schools currently face and how IEEE can help. To provide some suggestions on best practices and opportunities for working with teachers.

3 Council of Ministers of Education, Canada
A vision for scientific literacy in Canada: Scientific literacy is an evolving combination of the science-related attitudes, skills, and knowledge students need to develop inquiry, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities, to become lifelong learners, and to maintain a sense of wonder about the world around them. Source: CMEC. Common framework of science learning outcomes: Pan-Canadian protocol for collaboration on school curriculum, p. 4

4 Council of Ministers of Education, Canada
Diverse learning experiences based on the framework will provide students with many opportunities to explore, analyse, evaluate, synthesize, appreciate, and understand interrelationships among science, technology, society, and the environment that will affect their personal lives, their careers and their future. Source: CMEC. Common framework of science learning outcomes: Pan-Canadian protocol for collaboration on school curriculum, p. 4

5 Council of Ministers of Education, Canada
Students learn most effectively when their study of science is rooted in concrete learning experiences, related to a particular context or situation, and applied to the world where appropriate. Learning is enhanced when students identify and solve problems. Source: CMEC. Common framework of science learning outcomes: Pan-Canadian protocol for collaboration on school curriculum, p. 7

6 From Engagement to Empowerment: Reflections on Science Education for Ontario
Science through “doing” provides students with opportunities to develop, reinforce and extend their understandings of conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge. Students need access to materials, tools, and equipment necessary to develop and practice skills of science. Students need opportunities to engage in a variety of activities that foster the (development) of a broad range of skills. Source: Little, C. & Erminia Pedretti. From engagement to empowerment: Reflections on Science Education for Ontario. Pearson, p. 34

7 Context of Quebec Schools
69 Francophone school boards 9 Anglophone school boards 1 Aboriginal school board Private schools: French (FEEP) English (QAIS/AJDS) Non-affiliated CEGEP (equivalent to Grade 12 and First Year University) 7

8 Context in Quebec Schools
New curriculum, based on competencies, currently undergoing implementation. Teachers who were familiar with teaching specific content are now asked to reach outside of their comfort zone. (solution: Training Teams across the province) Appropriate resources are not always easy to find (solution: Renovations of labs and workshops; partnerships created with organizations such as IEEE).

9 How is a competency defined in Quebec?
A competency is defined as the ability to act effectively by mobilizing (using) a range of resources. MELS, p. 17, 2006

10 MELS, QEP, p.25

11

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13 Key Features Competency Manifestations “Observable Stuff”
You can take any competency and read it this way… A competency is the ability to act effectively in a given situation, thus, the key features and manifestations are examples of what we should see students doing if they are in the process of using a competency… or are developing the competency. The evaluation criteria are suggestions which do reflect the manifestations. The word manifestation is the lingo of our time which is short for “things we see students do” or “behaviours” or “observable things” in the context of competency development. Manifestations “Observable Stuff” Source: MELS, QEP, 2007

14 How competent we want kids to be when they leave school Developing competency

15 The content of the science and technology program, as taught through competency based LES/ES. If content is covered in the Cycle 2 program, it is understood that you are not going into any depth, rather this topic should be introduced only as students will return to it at a later date.

16 Climate Change; Deforestation Drinking Water; Energy Challenge
Year 2 – General Path Ions; Electrical conductivity Concentration (ppm) Electrolytes; pH scale; Electrolytic dissociation Carbon cycle Nitrogen Cycle Factors that influence the distribution of biomes Terrestrial biomes Marine Biomes Combustion, photosynthesis and respiration Acid-base neutralization reaction; Balancing simple chemical equations Law of conservation of mass Energy resources Soil profile Minerals Permafrost Catchment area; Oceanic Circulation Glacier and ice floe; Salinity Energy resources Rutherford-Bohr Model Lewis Notation Biogeochemical cycles Properties of Physical solutions Greenhouse Effect; Atmospheric circulation Air mass; Cyclone and anticyclone Energy resources Chemical Changes Lithosphere Climate Zone Electricity: (Electrical charge; static electricity Ohm’s law; Electrical circuits Relation ship between power and Electromagnetism: (forces of attraction and Repulsion; Magnetic field of a live wire) electrical energy) Hydrosphere Earth & Material Space World Living Technological World World (Ecology) Organization of Matter Electricity and Electromagnetism Atmosphere Solar energy flow Earth-Moon system (Gravitational effect) Law of conservation of energy Energy efficiency Distinction between heat and energy Space Transformation of Energy Climate Change; Deforestation Drinking Water; Energy Challenge Density, biological cycles Study of Populations Electrical Engineering Dynamics of Communities Power supply; Conduction, insulation, and protection. (electricity and light, heat, vibration, magnetism) Transformation of energy Control Mechanical Engineering Biodiversity Disturbances Dynamics of Ecosystems: Materials Characteristics of linking of mechanical parts Construction and characteristics of motion And belt; gear assembly; sprocket wheels and chain; Transmission systems (friction gears; pulleys Guiding controls Construction and characteristics of transformation systems (screw gear system, connecting rods, cranks, slides, rotating wheel and Worm gear) Speed Changes Slider crank mechanism, rack and pinion drive, cams Trophic relationships; Primary productivity; Material and Energy flow; Chemical recycling Characteristics of mechanical Types of properties (plastics, (deflection, shearing) Constraints thermosetting plastics Modification of properties Ceramics, composites Thermoplastics, Properties; Degradation, protection

17 Technological Year 2 – Applied Path Earth & Material Space World
Relationship between constant Force; Types of forces Equilibrium of two forces speed, distance and time Mass and Weight Archimedes Principle Bernoulli’s Principle Pascal’s Law Air mass; Cyclone and anticyclone Energy resources Energy resources Minerals Energy resources Catchment area; Earth-Moon system Solar energy flow (Gravitational effect) Combustion, oxidation Electricity: (Electrical charge; static electricity Relation ship between power and Ohm’s law; Electrical circuits electrical energy) Disturbances Trophic Relationships Primary Productivity Material and energy flow Chemical Recycling Factors that influence the Distribution of biomes Ecosystems Force and motion Hydrosphere Lithosphere Fluids Atmosphere Chemical Changes Electromagnetism: (forces of attraction and Repulsion; Magnetic field of a live wire) Magnetic field of a solenoid Electromagnetic induction Space Earth & Material Space World Technological World Electricity Electromagnetism Law of conservation of energy Energy efficiency Distinction between heat and energy Dynamics of Ecosystems Living World Transformation of Energy Multiview orthogonal projection (general drawing) Functional dimensioning Developments (prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone) Standards and representations (diagrams and symbols) Technologies: Medical, Information, Agricultural, Automotive Electrical Engineering Graphical Language: Power supply; Conduction, insulation, and protection (resistance and coding, Typical Controls (unipolar, bipolar, unidirectional Printed circuit). (electricity and light, heat, vibration, magnetism) Other functions (condenser, diode, transistor, Transformation of energy Bidirectional) Solid state relay Materials Manufacturing Characteristics of drilling, tapping, threading, Manufacturing: Measurement and Inspection: Direct measurement (vernier calliper) And bending Control, shape, and position (plane Section, angle) Mechanical Engineering Characteristics of mechanical properties Constraints (deflection, shearing) Plastics (thermoplastics, thermosetting, plastics) Types and properties: Modification of properties (degradation, Heat treatments Composites Ceramics protection) Adhesion and friction of parts Linking of mechanical parts (freedom of movement) Guiding controls Construction and characteristics of motion, Transmission systems (friction gears, pulleys and belt, Gear assembly, sprocket wheels and chain, wheel and worm gear) Speed changes, resisting torque, engine torque Construction and characteristics of motion: Transformation systems (screw gear system, connecting rods Cranks, slides, rotating slider crank mechanism, Rack and pinion drive, cams, eccentrics)

18 Science and Technology of the environment General Option
¤ Simplified atomic model ¤ Rules of nomenclature ¤ Avogadro'd number ¤ Polyatomic Ions ¤ Concept of mole ¤ Neutron and notation Cycle 2, Year 2 Science and Technology of the environment General Option ¤ Fission and fusion ¤ Nuclear Stability ¤ Radioactivity ¤ Relationship between work, force and ¤ Relationship between mass and weight displacement ¤ Relationship between work and energy ¤ Effectve force ¤ Relative atomic mass ¤ Periodicity of properties ¤ Atomic number ¤ Isotopes ¤ Relationship between potential energy, ¤ Relationship between kinetic energy, mass mass, aceleration and displacement and speed. ¤ Relationship between thermal energy, soecific heat capacity, mass and temperature variations ¤ Kirchhoff's laws ¤ Electrical field ¤ Coulomb's law ¤ magnetic field of a solenoid ¤ Ecological Footprint ¤ Ecotoxicology contaminants bioconcentration bioaccumulation Lethal dose Approved Version Transformations Nuclear Organization of Matter Transformation of energy Periodic Table ¤ Oxidation ¤ Salts ¤ Stoichiometry ¤ Types of bonds (covalent ou ionic) ¤ Endothermic and exothermic reactions Electricity and Magnetism Ecology Genetics ¤ Heredity ¤ Genes ¤ Alleles ¤ Character Trait ¤ Genotype et phenotype ¤ Homozygote et heterozygote ¤ Dominance et recessivity ¤ Protein synthesis ¤ Cross-Breeding Material World Food Production Residual Materials Chemical Changes Living World Genetics ¤ Concentration (mole/L) ¤ Strength of electrolytes Physical properties of solutions ¤ Axonometric Projection : exploded view (reading) ¤ Multiview Orthogonal Projection (assembly drawing) ¤ Dinmensional tolerances Technological World Atmosphere Graphical Language ¤ Atmospheric Circulation prevailing winds ¤ Contamination Space Earth and Hydrosphere Mechanical Engineering General Option Course Topics… Note the addition of two extra environmental issues: Food Production and Residual Materials. Lithosphere ¤ Contamination ¤ Eutrophication ¤ Construction and characteristics of motion transformation systems. ¤ Adhesion and friction between parts ¤ Degrees of freedom of a part (eccentric) Manufacturing Biogeochemical Cycle Materials drilling, tapping, threading and bending machines and tools Characteristics of laying out Direct measurement (vernier callipers) ¤ Forming ¤ Manufacturing ¤ Measurements Biotechnology ¤ Soil depletion ¤ Buffering the capacity of the soil ¤ Contamination Electrical Engineering ¤ Phosphorous Cycle ¤ Heat treatments ¤ Types of control (lever, pushbutton, toggle, unipolar, bipolar, unidirectional, bidirectional) ¤ Other functions (condenser, diode) ¤ Biodegradation of polluants ¤ Wastewater treatment ¤ Cloning protection (resistance et coding, ¤ Conduction, insulation and printed circuit)

19 Cycle 2, Year 2 Science and the Environment (Applied Option, 2 cr)
¤ Relationship between potential energy, mass, acceleration and displacement ¤ Relationship between kinetic energy, mass and speed. Cycle 2, Year 2 Science and the Environment (Applied Option, 2 cr) ¤ Relationship between work, force and displacement ¤ Relationship between work and energy ¤ Efficient force ¤ Lewis notation ¤ Particles (proton, electron, neutron) ¤ Simplified atomic model ¤ Relative Atomic Mass and Isotopes ¤ Relationship between thermal energy, specific heat capacity, mass and changes in temperature Approved Version ¤ Ecotoxicology contaminant bioconcentration bioaccumulation Toxicity level ¤ Nomenclature and Notation Rules ¤ Polyatomic ions ¤ Concept of mole Transformations of Energy Organiaation of matter Material World Ecology Food Production Residual Materials ¤ Precipitation ¤ Decomposition and synthesis ¤ Photosynthesis and respiration ¤ Acid-baseneutralization ¤ Salts ¤ Balancing chemical equations Living World Atmosphere ¤ Greenhouse Effect ¤ Atmospheric circulation Prevailing winds ¤ Contamination Earth and Space Chemical Changes ¤ Law on the conservation of mass ¤ Types of bonds (covalent ou ionic) ¤ Endothermique and exothermic reactions ¤ Stoichiometry Hydrosphere ¤ Contamination ¤ Eutrophication Lithosphere Physical Changes Physical properties of solutions ¤ Soil profile (Horizons) ¤ Buffering capacity of the soil ¤ Contamination ¤ Dissolution ¤ Dilution ¤ Solubility ¤ Concentration (g/L, ppm, %, mole/L) ¤ Electrolytes ¤ pH Scale ¤ Ions ¤ Electrical Conductivity

20 General Education Path and Applied Education Path
Cycle One Secondary III Secondary IV Secondary V Required to enter Pre-U SCIENCES in CEGEP Minimum to Graduate SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (S&T) OPTION Same for all students 6 credits (150 hours) 4 credits (100 hrs) 4 credits (100 hrs) OPTION OPTION 1 OPTION 2 Physics 4 credits (100 hrs) Chemistry 4 credits (100 hrs) 6 credits (150 hours) 6 credits (150 hrs) 2 cr (50 hrs) OPT Note that in Grade 9, there is an equal amount of time given to either path (general or applied). The difference is very teacher dependent – as the majority of the content is identical and two of the three competencies are identical – only competency 2 differs between the paths… The scales reflect this… Comeptency 1 and 3 are identical for general and applied… whereas Competency 2, the word “issue” is used in the general program, whereas the word “application” is used in the applied program. BOTH the general and the applied have a technology component, but there is a much greater emphasis of the technology in the applied program as opposed to the general path. In General – the technology is used to get at issues. In Applied the technology is more built into the activities. Both courses will use the same textbook, with sections highlighted for each course. Documents available in Spring 2009 APPLIED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (AST) BRIDGE 20

21 Competency 1 Seeks answers or solutions to scientific or technological problems This competency is identical in both paths. This competency is developed through activities which require students to use either the scientific method or the design process. 21

22 Same for Applied and General
22

23 Note: The forms of analysis are the same
Competency 2 Makes the most of his/her knowledge of science and technology General Path: Grade 10 Focuses on ISSUES analysis Issues: Climate Change Deforestation Energy Challenge Drinking Water Waste Management (Opt.) Food Production (Opt.) MELS. General QEP, p Applied Path: Grade 10 Focuses on the analysis of technical applications. Examples of Technologies: Medical Transportation Agricultural Information and Communication MELS. Applied QEP, p. 24 This is where the paths diverge between applied and general… General Path: In grade 10 is issue analysis. The required issues which must be explored are listed above… These are mandatory topics in the course through which to discuss content within the course… Applied Path in grade 10: there are an abundance of possibilities presented in the QEP on p These are recommended – though teachers are expected to look in as many areas as possible. NOTE: The exam in grade 10 which will evaluate competency #2 is the exam that will differ between the applied and the general paths… Note: The forms of analysis are the same 10 ways seen in Cycle 1. 23

24 Technology Oriented GENERAL PATH 24

25 Technology Oriented APPLIED PATH 25

26 Competency 3 Communicates in the languages used
in science and technology This competency is identical in both paths. In order to know whether the student has understood something - be it a concept, a skill, or a method – they must communicate this to us in an observable way… 26

27 27

28 Questions to be answered:
What is your intention with a given activity? Targeted Competencies Targeted Content What do your students already know? How will you evaluate them? During the activities? At the end? Given this… how does a teacher plan an LES? Or a series of LESs? Teachers should always ask themselves four questions while planning… (see above). What abilities do students already have – what do they already know in terms of content material that they can draw upon to help them be successful in the next learning task. Evaluation is a key factor which will drive the entire LES – how will a teacher monitor how students are doing? How will students be evaluated – as this is what we will be using to make our judgments at the end of a term? What will teachers try to observe to determine if a student is successfully completing a task? Knowing what you are looking for, and knowing how it helps students to grow is essential. 28 28

29 Challenges and Opportunities
Some challenges: Degree of comfort level for teachers with the technology component. The availability of good resources is not always obvious. “Time” The Opportunities: Teachers are strongly encouraged to use community expertise to bring the “real world” into the classroom. Exploration of engineering in general with the students Conventions and conferences Invitation to a Science Symposium next year (09-10)…!

30 How to establish contact?
School board consultants have direct access and are most often open to encouraging community support. Ministries will generally have their curricula on their website (http://www.mels.gouv.qc.ca) You need to make it relevant: How does it connect to the level being taught? How will this help my students to learn and develop competency?

31 Questions or Comments? Christie Brown Math, Science and Technology
Services à la communauté anglophone Ministère de l’éducation, de loisir et du sport , 5277 Best way to reach me:


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