Presentation on theme: "Some Guiding Thoughts on Science Education"— Presentation transcript:
1 Some Guiding Thoughts on Science Education Christie Brown, MELSIEEE Region 7 MeetingMontreal, QuebecMay 16, 2009
2 ObjectivesTo provide an overview the science and technology curriculum in Quebec.To share some of the challenges that schools currently face and how IEEE can help.To provide some suggestions on best practices and opportunities for working with teachers.
3 Council of Ministers of Education, Canada A vision for scientific literacy in Canada: Scientific literacy is an evolving combination of the science-related attitudes, skills, and knowledge students need to develop inquiry, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities, to become lifelong learners, and to maintain a sense of wonder about the world around them.Source: CMEC. Common framework of science learning outcomes: Pan-Canadian protocol for collaboration on school curriculum, p. 4
4 Council of Ministers of Education, Canada Diverse learning experiences based on the framework will provide students with many opportunities to explore, analyse, evaluate, synthesize, appreciate, and understand interrelationships among science, technology, society, and the environment that will affect their personal lives, their careers and their future.Source: CMEC. Common framework of science learning outcomes: Pan-Canadian protocol for collaboration on school curriculum, p. 4
5 Council of Ministers of Education, Canada Students learn most effectively when their study of science is rooted in concrete learning experiences, related to a particular context or situation, and applied to the world where appropriate.Learning is enhanced when students identify and solve problems.Source: CMEC. Common framework of science learning outcomes: Pan-Canadian protocol for collaboration on school curriculum, p. 7
6 From Engagement to Empowerment: Reflections on Science Education for Ontario Science through “doing” provides students with opportunities to develop, reinforce and extend their understandings of conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge.Students need access to materials, tools, and equipment necessary to develop and practice skills of science.Students need opportunities to engage in a variety of activities that foster the (development) of a broad range of skills.Source: Little, C. & Erminia Pedretti. From engagement to empowerment: Reflections on Science Education for Ontario. Pearson, p. 34
7 Context of Quebec Schools 69 Francophone school boards9 Anglophone school boards1 Aboriginal school boardPrivate schools:French (FEEP)English (QAIS/AJDS)Non-affiliatedCEGEP (equivalent to Grade 12 and First Year University)7
8 Context in Quebec Schools New curriculum, based on competencies, currently undergoing implementation.Teachers who were familiar with teaching specific content are now asked to reach outside of their comfort zone. (solution: Training Teams across the province)Appropriate resources are not always easy to find (solution: Renovations of labs and workshops; partnerships created with organizations such as IEEE).
9 How is a competency defined in Quebec? A competency is defined as the ability to act effectively by mobilizing (using) a range of resources.MELS, p. 17, 2006
13 Key Features Competency Manifestations “Observable Stuff” You can take any competency and read it this way… A competency is the ability to act effectively in a given situation, thus, the key features and manifestations are examples of what we should see students doing if they are in the process of using a competency… or are developing the competency. The evaluation criteria are suggestions which do reflect the manifestations. The word manifestation is the lingo of our time which is short for “things we see students do” or “behaviours” or “observable things” in the context of competency development.Manifestations“Observable Stuff”Source: MELS, QEP, 2007
14 How competent we wantkids to bewhen they leave schoolDevelopingcompetency
15 The content of the science and technology program, as taught through competency based LES/ES. If content is covered in the Cycle 2 program, it is understood that you are not going into any depth, rather this topic should be introduced only as students will return to it at a later date.
16 Climate Change; Deforestation Drinking Water; Energy Challenge Year 2 – General PathIons; Electrical conductivityConcentration (ppm)Electrolytes; pH scale;Electrolytic dissociationCarbon cycleNitrogen CycleFactors that influence thedistribution of biomesTerrestrial biomesMarine BiomesCombustion, photosynthesis and respirationAcid-base neutralization reaction;Balancing simple chemical equationsLaw of conservation of massEnergy resourcesSoil profileMineralsPermafrostCatchment area; Oceanic CirculationGlacier and ice floe; SalinityEnergy resourcesRutherford-Bohr ModelLewis NotationBiogeochemicalcyclesProperties ofPhysicalsolutionsGreenhouse Effect; Atmospheric circulationAir mass; Cyclone and anticycloneEnergy resourcesChemicalChangesLithosphereClimateZoneElectricity: (Electrical charge; static electricityOhm’s law; Electrical circuitsRelation ship between power andElectromagnetism: (forces of attraction andRepulsion; Magnetic field of a live wire)electrical energy)HydrosphereEarth & MaterialSpace WorldLiving TechnologicalWorld World(Ecology)Organizationof MatterElectricity andElectromagnetismAtmosphereSolar energy flowEarth-Moon system(Gravitational effect)Law of conservation of energyEnergy efficiencyDistinction between heat and energySpaceTransformation ofEnergyClimate Change; DeforestationDrinking Water; Energy ChallengeDensity, biological cyclesStudy ofPopulationsElectricalEngineeringDynamics ofCommunitiesPower supply; Conduction, insulation,and protection.(electricity and light, heat, vibration, magnetism)Transformation of energyControlMechanicalEngineeringBiodiversityDisturbancesDynamics ofEcosystems:MaterialsCharacteristics of linking of mechanical partsConstruction and characteristics of motionAnd belt; gear assembly; sprocket wheels and chain;Transmission systems (friction gears; pulleysGuiding controlsConstruction and characteristics of transformation systems(screw gear system, connecting rods, cranks, slides, rotatingwheel and Worm gear) Speed ChangesSlider crank mechanism, rack and pinion drive, camsTrophic relationships;Primary productivity;Material and Energy flow;Chemical recyclingCharacteristics of mechanicalTypes of properties (plastics,(deflection, shearing)Constraintsthermosetting plasticsModification of propertiesCeramics, compositesThermoplastics,Properties;Degradation, protection
17 Technological Year 2 – Applied Path Earth & Material Space World Relationship between constantForce; Types of forcesEquilibrium of two forcesspeed, distance and timeMass and WeightArchimedes PrincipleBernoulli’s PrinciplePascal’s LawAir mass; Cyclone and anticycloneEnergy resourcesEnergy resourcesMineralsEnergy resourcesCatchment area;Earth-Moon systemSolar energy flow(Gravitational effect)Combustion, oxidationElectricity: (Electrical charge; static electricityRelation ship between power andOhm’s law; Electrical circuitselectrical energy)DisturbancesTrophic RelationshipsPrimary ProductivityMaterial and energy flowChemical RecyclingFactors that influence theDistribution of biomesEcosystemsForce andmotionHydrosphereLithosphereFluidsAtmosphereChemicalChangesElectromagnetism: (forces of attraction andRepulsion; Magnetic field of a live wire)Magnetic field of a solenoidElectromagnetic inductionSpaceEarth & MaterialSpace WorldTechnologicalWorldElectricityElectromagnetismLaw of conservation of energyEnergy efficiencyDistinction between heat and energyDynamics ofEcosystemsLivingWorldTransformation ofEnergyMultiview orthogonal projection(general drawing)Functional dimensioningDevelopments (prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone)Standards and representations(diagrams and symbols)Technologies: Medical,Information, Agricultural,AutomotiveElectricalEngineeringGraphicalLanguage:Power supply; Conduction, insulation,and protection (resistance and coding,Typical Controls (unipolar, bipolar, unidirectionalPrinted circuit).(electricity and light, heat, vibration, magnetism)Other functions (condenser, diode, transistor,Transformation of energyBidirectional)Solid state relayMaterialsManufacturingCharacteristics of drilling, tapping, threading,Manufacturing:Measurement and Inspection:Direct measurement (vernier calliper)And bendingControl, shape, and position (planeSection, angle)MechanicalEngineeringCharacteristics of mechanical propertiesConstraints (deflection, shearing)Plastics (thermoplastics, thermosetting, plastics)Types and properties:Modification of properties (degradation,Heat treatmentsCompositesCeramicsprotection)Adhesion and friction of partsLinking of mechanical parts (freedom of movement)Guiding controlsConstruction and characteristics of motion,Transmission systems (friction gears, pulleys and belt,Gear assembly, sprocket wheels and chain,wheel and worm gear)Speed changes, resisting torque, engine torqueConstruction and characteristics of motion:Transformation systems (screw gear system, connecting rodsCranks, slides, rotating slider crank mechanism,Rack and pinion drive, cams, eccentrics)
18 Science and Technology of the environment General Option ¤ Simplified atomic model¤ Rules of nomenclature¤ Avogadro'd number¤ Polyatomic Ions¤ Concept of mole¤ Neutronand notationCycle 2, Year 2Science and Technologyof the environmentGeneral Option¤ Fission and fusion¤ Nuclear Stability¤ Radioactivity¤ Relationship between work, force and¤ Relationship between mass and weightdisplacement¤ Relationship between work and energy¤ Effectve force¤ Relative atomic mass¤ Periodicity of properties¤ Atomic number¤ Isotopes¤ Relationship between potential energy,¤ Relationship between kinetic energy, massmass, aceleration and displacementand speed.¤ Relationship between thermal energy,soecific heat capacity, mass andtemperature variations¤ Kirchhoff's laws¤ Electrical field¤ Coulomb's law¤ magnetic field of a solenoid¤ Ecological Footprint¤ EcotoxicologycontaminantsbioconcentrationbioaccumulationLethal doseApproved VersionTransformationsNuclearOrganizationof MatterTransformationof energyPeriodicTable¤ Oxidation¤ Salts¤ Stoichiometry¤ Types of bonds (covalent ou ionic)¤ Endothermic and exothermic reactionsElectricity andMagnetismEcologyGenetics¤ Heredity¤ Genes¤ Alleles¤ Character Trait¤ Genotype et phenotype¤ Homozygote et heterozygote¤ Dominance et recessivity¤ Protein synthesis¤ Cross-BreedingMaterial WorldFood ProductionResidual MaterialsChemicalChangesLivingWorldGenetics¤ Concentration (mole/L)¤ Strength of electrolytesPhysical propertiesof solutions¤ Axonometric Projection : exploded view (reading)¤ Multiview Orthogonal Projection(assembly drawing)¤ Dinmensional tolerancesTechnological WorldAtmosphereGraphicalLanguage¤ Atmospheric Circulationprevailing winds¤ ContaminationSpaceEarth andHydrosphereMechanicalEngineeringGeneral Option Course Topics… Note the addition of two extra environmental issues: Food Production and Residual Materials.Lithosphere¤ Contamination¤ Eutrophication¤ Construction and characteristics of motion transformation systems.¤ Adhesion and friction between parts¤ Degrees of freedom of a part(eccentric)ManufacturingBiogeochemicalCycleMaterialsdrilling, tapping, threading and bendingmachines and toolsCharacteristics of laying outDirect measurement (vernier callipers)¤ Forming¤ Manufacturing¤ MeasurementsBiotechnology¤ Soil depletion¤ Buffering the capacity of the soil¤ ContaminationElectrical Engineering¤ Phosphorous Cycle¤ Heat treatments¤ Types of control(lever, pushbutton, toggle, unipolar,bipolar, unidirectional, bidirectional)¤ Other functions (condenser, diode)¤ Biodegradation of polluants¤ Wastewater treatment¤ Cloningprotection (resistance et coding,¤ Conduction, insulation andprinted circuit)
19 Cycle 2, Year 2 Science and the Environment (Applied Option, 2 cr) ¤ Relationship between potential energy, mass,acceleration and displacement¤ Relationship between kinetic energy, mass and speed.Cycle 2, Year 2Science and the Environment(Applied Option, 2 cr)¤ Relationship between work, force and displacement¤ Relationship between work and energy¤ Efficient force¤ Lewis notation¤ Particles (proton, electron, neutron)¤ Simplified atomic model¤ Relative Atomic Mass and Isotopes¤ Relationship between thermal energy,specific heat capacity, mass andchanges in temperatureApprovedVersion¤ EcotoxicologycontaminantbioconcentrationbioaccumulationToxicity level¤ Nomenclature and Notation Rules¤ Polyatomic ions¤ Concept of moleTransformationsof EnergyOrganiaationof matterMaterial WorldEcologyFood ProductionResidual Materials¤ Precipitation¤ Decomposition and synthesis¤ Photosynthesis and respiration¤ Acid-baseneutralization¤ Salts¤ Balancing chemical equationsLiving WorldAtmosphere¤ Greenhouse Effect¤ Atmospheric circulationPrevailing winds¤ ContaminationEarth and SpaceChemicalChanges¤ Law on the conservation of mass¤ Types of bonds (covalent ou ionic)¤ Endothermique and exothermic reactions¤ StoichiometryHydrosphere¤ Contamination¤ EutrophicationLithospherePhysicalChangesPhysical propertiesof solutions¤ Soil profile (Horizons)¤ Buffering capacity of the soil¤ Contamination¤ Dissolution¤ Dilution¤ Solubility¤ Concentration (g/L, ppm, %, mole/L)¤ Electrolytes¤ pH Scale¤ Ions¤ Electrical Conductivity
20 General Education Path and Applied Education Path Cycle OneSecondary IIISecondary IVSecondary VRequired to enterPre-U SCIENCESin CEGEPMinimumto GraduateSCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (S&T)OPTIONSamefor allstudents6 credits(150 hours)4 credits(100 hrs)4 credits(100 hrs)OPTIONOPTION 1OPTION 2Physics4 credits(100 hrs)Chemistry4 credits(100 hrs)6 credits(150 hours)6 credits(150 hrs)2 cr(50 hrs)OPTNote that in Grade 9, there is an equal amount of time given to either path (general or applied). The difference is very teacher dependent – as the majority of the content is identical and two of the three competencies are identical – only competency 2 differs between the paths… The scales reflect this… Comeptency 1 and 3 are identical for general and applied… whereas Competency 2, the word “issue” is used in the general program, whereas the word “application” is used in the applied program.BOTH the general and the applied have a technology component, but there is a much greater emphasis of the technology in the applied program as opposed to the general path.In General – the technology is used to get at issues.In Applied the technology is more built into the activities.Both courses will use the same textbook, with sections highlighted for each course.Documents available in Spring 2009APPLIED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (AST)BRIDGE20
21 Competency 1Seeks answers or solutions to scientific or technological problemsThis competency is identical in both paths.This competency is developed through activities which require students to use either the scientific method or the design process.21
23 Note: The forms of analysis are the same Competency 2Makes the most of his/her knowledge ofscience and technologyGeneral Path: Grade 10Focuses on ISSUES analysisIssues:Climate ChangeDeforestationEnergy ChallengeDrinking WaterWaste Management (Opt.)Food Production (Opt.)MELS. General QEP, pApplied Path: Grade 10Focuses on the analysis of technical applications.Examples of Technologies:MedicalTransportationAgriculturalInformation and CommunicationMELS. Applied QEP, p. 24This is where the paths diverge between applied and general…General Path: In grade 10 is issue analysis. The required issues which must be explored are listed above… These are mandatory topics in the course through which to discuss content within the course…Applied Path in grade 10: there are an abundance of possibilities presented in the QEP on p These are recommended – though teachers are expected to look in as many areas as possible.NOTE: The exam in grade 10 which will evaluate competency #2 is the exam that will differ between the applied and the general paths…Note: The forms of analysis are the same10 ways seen in Cycle 1.23
26 Competency 3 Communicates in the languages used in science and technologyThis competency is identical in both paths.In order to know whether the student has understood something - be it a concept, a skill, or a method – they must communicate this to us in an observable way…26
28 Questions to be answered: What is your intention with a given activity?Targeted CompetenciesTargeted ContentWhat do your students already know?How will you evaluate them?During the activities?At the end?Given this… how does a teacher plan an LES? Or a series of LESs?Teachers should always ask themselves four questions while planning… (see above).What abilities do students already have – what do they already know in terms of content material that they can draw upon to help them be successful in the next learning task.Evaluation is a key factor which will drive the entire LES – how will a teacher monitor how students are doing? How will students be evaluated – as this is what we will be using to make our judgments at the end of a term? What will teachers try to observe to determine if a student is successfully completing a task? Knowing what you are looking for, and knowing how it helps students to grow is essential.2828
29 Challenges and Opportunities Some challenges:Degree of comfort level for teachers with the technology component.The availability of good resources is not always obvious.“Time”The Opportunities:Teachers are strongly encouraged to use community expertise to bring the “real world” into the classroom.Exploration of engineering in general with the studentsConventions and conferencesInvitation to a Science Symposium next year (09-10)…!
30 How to establish contact? School board consultants have direct access and are most often open to encouraging community support.Ministries will generally have their curricula on their website (You need to make it relevant:How does it connect to the level being taught?How will this help my students to learn and develop competency?
31 Questions or Comments? Christie Brown Math, Science and Technology Services à la communauté anglophoneMinistère de l’éducation, de loisir et du sport, 5277Best way to reach me: