“Big Ideas” in Physical Science – Overview Properties of Matter Changes in Matter Forms of Energy Energy Transfers Force and Motion
Properties of Matter All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.
Changes in Matter Matter can undergo a variety of changes. Matter can be changed physically or chemically.
Forms of Energy A. Energy is involved in all physical processes and is a unifying concept in many areas of science. B. Energy exists in many forms and has the ability to do work or cause a change.
Energy Transfer and Transformations A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter. B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material. C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.
Motion of Objects A. Motion is a key characteristic of all matter that can be observed, described, and measured. B. The motion of objects can be changed by forces.
Forces and Changes in Motion A. It takes energy to change the motion of objects. B. Energy change is understood in terms of forces--pushes or pulls. Some forces act through physical contact, while others act at a distance.
Investigations vs. Experiments An investigation is a procedure that is carried out to gather data about an object or event. An experiment is a procedure you carry out under controlled conditions to test a hypothesis.
Session 2 - Matter Matter - takes up space and has mass Measuring Matter States of Matter Changes in Matter
Measuring Matter Mass - the amount of matter in an object (balance) Volume - amount of space an object takes up Density - measure of mass per unit of volume (M/V)
Changes in Matter Physical Changes - usually a change of shape, size, or state. No new matter, no new properties. Chemical Changes - New properties, often a change in color or temperature. Often produces a new gas or solid.
Session 3 - Energy Energy - The ability to cause a change Forms of Energy Transformation and Changes Energy, Force, and Motion
Forms of Energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy - Stored Energy Chemical Energy Elastic Potential Energy Gravitational Potential Energy
Chemical Energy The nutrients in the banana are chemicals which are stored In the food. The chemicals in the battery that powers the clock are an example of stored energy
Elastic Potential Energy The arrow has potential energy due to the elastic nature of the bow.
Gravitational Potential Energy The coaster car has potential energy due to its height above the ground.
Kinetic Energy - The Energy of Motion Electrical Energy Light Energy Heat Energy Sound Energy Motion Energy
Transfer of Energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. Energy can change from one form to another. The source of all energy on earth is the sun.
Examples of Energy Transfers Electrical to sound and light Electrical to heat Elecrical to mechanical Solar to electrical
Session 4 – Forces and Motion Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Newton’s Laws of Motion
Forces Force - a push or a pull Balanced vs. Unbalanced forces Ever present forces - gravity, friction, magnetism Applied forces
Balanced Forces - The forces are equal and opposite in direction. There is no motion.
Unbalanced Forces - Causes Motion
Motion - The result of Unbalanced Forces Newton’s 1st Law - Law of Inertia Newton’s 2nd Law - Law of Momentum Newton’s 3rd Law - Law of Action / Reaction
Newton’s Second Law of Motion An object with more mass will require more force to begin its motion and/or to stop the motion.
Newton’s Third Law of Motion For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Resources The Handy Science Answer Book Physics for Children The Science Yellow Pages for Students and Teachers Clipart.com