1 The Nature of Science Scientific World View (1A) The Scientific Community (1C) Science and Society (1C) Evidence and Reasoning in Inquiry (1B) Scientific Investigations (1B) Scientific Theories (1B) Avoiding Bias in Science (1B)
Mathematical Processes (2C) Mathematical Models (2C) 2 The Nature of Mathematics Nature of Mathematics (2AB)
Design Constraints (3B) Designed Systems (3B) Interaction of Technology and Society (3C) Decisions about Using Technology (3C) 3 The Nature of Technology Technology and Science (3A)
Weather and Climate (4B) Use of Earth’s Resources (4B) Energy Transformations (4E) Electricity and Magnetism (4G) Solar System (4A) Stars (4A) Galaxies and the Universe (4A) Changes in the Earth’s Surface (4C) Plate Tectonics (4C) Atoms and Molecules (4D) Conservation of Matter (4D) States of Matter (4D) Chemical Reactions (4D) Laws of Motion (4F) Waves (4F) Gravity (4G) 4 The Physical Setting
DNA and Inherited Characteristics (5B) Variation in Inherited Characteristics (5B) Cell Functions (5C) Cells and Organs (5C) Flow of Matter in Ecosystems (5E) Flow of Energy in Ecosystems (5E) Biological Evolution (5F) Natural Selection (5F) 5 The Living Environment Diversity of Life (5A) Interdependence of Life (5D)
Disease (6E) Maintaining Good Health (6E) Coping with Mental Distress (6F) Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders (6F) 6 The Human Organism Human Identity (6A) Human Development (6B) Basic Functions (6C)
7 Human Society Group Behavior (7B) Political and Economic Systems (7E) Social Conflict (7F) Global interdependence (7G) Heredity and Experience Shape Behavior (7A) Culture Affects Behavior (7A) Influences on Social Change (7C) Social Decisions (7D)
Materials Science (8B) Manufacturing (8B) Energy Resources (8C) Health Technology (8F) Agricultural Technology (8A) Communication Technology (8D) Computers (8E) 8 The Designed World
Ratios and Proportionality (9A) Graphic Representation (9B) Symbolic Representation (9B) Describing Change (9B) Averages and Comparisons (9D) Correlation (9D) Statistical Reasoning (9D) 9 The Mathematical World Numbers (9A) Shapes (9C) Reasoning (9E)
10 Historical Perspectives The Copernican Revolution (10A) Classical Mechanics (10B) Relativity (10C) Moving the Continents (10DE) The Chemical Revolution (10F) Splitting the Atom (10G) Explaining Evolution (10H) Discovering Germs (10I) The Industrial Revolution (10J)
11 Common Themes Systems (11A) Models (11B) Constancy (11C) Patterns of Change (11C) Scale (11D)
12 Habits of Mind Values in Science (12A) Public Perception of Science (12A) Computation and Estimation (12B) Using Tools and Devices (12C) Communication Skills (12D) Detecting Flaws in Arguments (12E)
Map Key BENCHMARKS are specific learning goals derived mostly from Benchmarks for Science Literacy but also from Science for All Americans and National Science Education Standards. Colored boxes indicate knowledge goals; bordered boxes indicate skill goals. Some benchmarks have been split into two or more ideas which appear in separate boxes.
Map Key BENCHMARK CODES indicate chapter, section, grade range, and number of the corresponding goal statements in Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Letters, asterisks, and acronyms following the code provide additional information about the benchmark.
Map Key CONNECTING ARROWS indicate that achieving one benchmark contributes to achieving the other. The exact meaning of a connection is not indicated explicitly, but connections can be based on the logic of the subject matter or on cognitive research about how students learn.
Map Key GRADE RANGES suggest when most students could achieve these benchmarks. A benchmark’s position within a grade range does not indicate the grade in which it should be taught, nor does its position indicate that it should be taught before or after another benchmark unless there is an arrow connecting them.
Map Key STRAND LABELS help the reader find things in the map and get a sense of the map’s content. Strands loosely suggest ideas or skills that develop over time. Strands often interweave and share benchmarks.
Map Key CROSS-REFERENCES TO OTHER MAPS indicate that the benchmark also appears on the maps that are listed.
Map Key OFF-MAP CONNECTIONS show links to the codes of closely related benchmarks when it is not possible to include the full text of the benchmark on a map. Arrows in off-map connections imply the same relationship between benchmarks as they do when they connect boxes to boxes. Use the Index of Mapped Benchmarks to search for maps on which a benchmark appears in its full text.
Index of Mapped Benchmarks The index entries are not terms or topics. Each index entry is for a unique benchmark statement identified by its benchmark code. The index is organized according to the structure of the chapters and sections in Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Each index entry provides the names of the maps, along with the volume and page numbers, on which the benchmark can be found.