Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

UPS Topologies and Multi-Module Configurations

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "UPS Topologies and Multi-Module Configurations"— Presentation transcript:

1 UPS Topologies and Multi-Module Configurations
IEEE IAS Section Atlanta GA November 17, 2008

2 Agenda Line Interactive UPS UPS Topologies UPS Design Market Drivers
Delta Conversion UPS Double Conversion UPS Rotary UPS UPS Design Market Drivers UPS Components Multi-Module UPS Configurations

3 Critical Power System Critical Load Generation Power Quality
Distribution TVSS UPS PDU Servers Static Switch ATS Paralleling Switchgear

4 Line Interactive UPS

5 UPS Topologies – Line Interactive
Runs on AC power from Utility and switches to Inverter if Utility source power quality is not within predetermined tolerance. Provides some surge protection. Benefits – very efficient due to minimizing inverter run time Disadvantages – limited surge protection Application – Single computer or single rack

6 Delta Conversion

7 Delta Conversion This Line Interactive system carries the load by using both the utility line by means of a Line Conditioner (Course Regulation) and two converters (Actually two inverters for Fine Regulation & Battery Charger). This topology can regulate the load voltage by manipulating the secondary winding of the series t-former using the Series Converter. Advantages System does not go on battery for voltage fluctuations. System efficiency is higher in normal mode. Disadvantages The unit needs two inverters, less reliability. It circulates more ripple current to the batteries. If the utility frequency goes out of tolerance, the unit must go on batteries.

8 Double Conversion UPS

9 UPS Topologies – Double Conversion
Rectifies AC power into DC and then converts the DC back to AC. Provides clean power, completely isolated from the Utility during normal operation. Benefits – No interruption of Power; Protects load from Utility spikes and Surges Disadvantages – Greater losses than Line Interactive design

10 Rotary UPS

11 UPS Design Key Market Drivers
Reliability – The 5 “9’s” % up time Efficiency EPA Influence Green Grid Server Technology Voltage Outage Ride Through

12 Efficiency Line Interactive UPS ~98% efficient
Double Conversion ~ 92% to 94% efficient Methods to improve UPS efficiency Eliminate Input and Output Transformers “ECO” mode -Line interactive mode of operation Data Center Efficiency Trends Eliminate PDU transformers Electrical Distribution Voltages

13 ECO Mode Overview

14 Server Technology Server Voltages Today –120VAC - 240VAC
600V or 480V distribution with PDU transformers 400V distribution without PDU transformers Future – 277 VAC? ; 480VAC? Server Power Outage Ride Through CEMBA Curve – Now the “ITIC” Curve Key Factor for “ECO” mode.

15 CBEMA-ITIC Curve for Double Conversion UPS

16 UPS Components Rectifiers SCR or IGBT Inverters IGBT with PWM
SCR – 6 Pulse and 12 Pulse Inverters IGBT with PWM Static Switch Module Transformers Input Transformer Output Transformer Filters Input Harmonic Filters

17 Rectifiers IGBT Rectifier – Clean Input SCR Rectifiers
High power sinusoidal rectification – low harmonics, limited need for filters SCR Rectifiers 6 Pulse – ~30% THD without filters – 7% with 5th Harmonic Filter <5% with 5th and 11th filter 12 Pulse – reduces harmonics by using parallel rectifiers with a phase shift ahead of one rectifier – requires input transformer Lower efficiency than 6 Pulse Rectifiers can be programmed to sequentially ramp up

18 6 Pulse Current Input THD without filter THD with filter

19 12 Pulse Rectifiers

20 750 kVA - 6P vs 12P Rectifier – Energy Efficiency
Percentage load 6-Pulse - no Xfrmr 12-Pulse w/xfrmr 25% 92.8 % 91.8 % 50% 94.2 % 93.3 % 75% 93.2 % 100% 93.6 % 92.4 % Efficiency Difference 1.0 % 0.9 % 1.2 %

21 Inverters Converts DC power into AC using IGBTs and PWM
Several different methods to implement PWM

22 Static Switch Modules Static Switch Module consists of breaker or contactor in series with back to back SCRs. Static Switch modules can be continuous duty or momentary rated. Momentary rated Modules have a breaker or contactor in parallel. Continuous duty is required for ECO mode operation.

23 Input Isolation Transformer
Input Isolation Transformer – required for 12 Pulse Rectifier

24 UPS Output Transformer
Isolates load from inverter Provides greater protection to load during inverter failure Transformer MTBF > IGBT MTBF

25 Input Filters 5th Harmonic Cancellation Power Factor Correction
The filter is designed to cancel the current distortion that is most present on the 5th harmonic. Power Factor Correction The input filter also raises the input pf to approximately 0.93 with addition of capacitors. This will allow the generator to operate more efficiently delivering more real power

26 Multi-Module UPS Configurations
Paralleling UPS Modules Capacity or Redundancy Centralized Bypass Distributed Bypass Typical Parallel UPS Configurations Isolated Redundant Parallel Redundant Distributed Redundant System plus System

27 Parallel for Capacity Parallel for capacity reduces MTBF value
Multiple units = N Not recommended for a N System (single system) Frequently used for System + System (N+N) MTBF impact Parallel for capacity reduces MTBF value Approximately half the MTBF of a single unit

28 Centralized Bypass

29 Distributed Bypass 29

30 Centralized Bypass Cabinet
Distributed Bypass Configuration does not need this gear lineup

31 Parallel UPS Configurations
Isolated Redundant Parallel Redundant Distributed Redundant System plus System

32 Isolated Redundant

33 Parallel Redundant

34 Distributed Redundant

35 System + System

36 Questions?

37 Contact Information: Harry Handlin GE Power Quality Systems Engineer P E

Download ppt "UPS Topologies and Multi-Module Configurations"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google