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UPS Topologies and Multi- Module Configurations IEEE IAS Section Atlanta GA November 17, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "UPS Topologies and Multi- Module Configurations IEEE IAS Section Atlanta GA November 17, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 UPS Topologies and Multi- Module Configurations IEEE IAS Section Atlanta GA November 17, 2008

2 2 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Agenda UPS Topologies Line Interactive UPS Delta Conversion UPS Double Conversion UPS Rotary UPS UPS Design Market Drivers UPS Components Multi-Module UPS Configurations

3 3 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Critical Power System ATS TVSS Power QualityDistribution PDU Generatio n Paralleling Switchgear Critical Load UPS Servers Static Switch

4 4 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Line Interactive UPS

5 5 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 UPS Topologies – Line Interactive Line Interactive Runs on AC power from Utility and switches to Inverter if Utility source power quality is not within predetermined tolerance. Provides some surge protection. Benefits – very efficient due to minimizing inverter run time Disadvantages – limited surge protection Application – Single computer or single rack

6 6 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Delta Conversion

7 7 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 This Line Interactive system carries the load by using both the utility line by means of a Line Conditioner (Course Regulation) and two converters (Actually two inverters for Fine Regulation & Battery Charger). This topology can regulate the load voltage by manipulating the secondary winding of the series t-former using the Series Converter. Advantages System does not go on battery for voltage fluctuations. System efficiency is higher in normal mode. Disadvantages The unit needs two inverters, less reliability. It circulates more ripple current to the batteries. If the utility frequency goes out of tolerance, the unit must go on batteries. Delta Conversion

8 8 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Double Conversion UPS

9 9 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 UPS Topologies – Double Conversion Double Conversion Rectifies AC power into DC and then converts the DC back to AC. Provides clean power, completely isolated from the Utility during normal operation. Benefits – No interruption of Power; Protects load from Utility spikes and Surges Disadvantages – Greater losses than Line Interactive design

10 10 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Rotary UPS

11 11 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 UPS Design Key Market Drivers Reliability – The 5 9s - 99.999% up time Efficiency EPA Influence Green Grid Server Technology Voltage Outage Ride Through

12 12 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Efficiency Line Interactive UPS ~98% efficient Double Conversion ~ 92% to 94% efficient Methods to improve UPS efficiency Eliminate Input and Output Transformers ECO mode -Line interactive mode of operation Data Center Efficiency Trends Eliminate PDU transformers Electrical Distribution Voltages

13 13 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 ECO Mode Overview

14 14 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Server Technology Server Voltages Today –120VAC - 240VAC 600V or 480V distribution with PDU transformers 400V distribution without PDU transformers Future – 277 VAC? ; 480VAC? Server Power Outage Ride Through CEMBA Curve – Now the ITIC Curve Key Factor for ECO mode.

15 15 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 CBEMA-ITIC Curve for Double Conversion UPS

16 16 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 UPS Components Rectifiers SCR or IGBT SCR – 6 Pulse and 12 Pulse Inverters IGBT with PWM Static Switch Module Transformers Input Transformer Output Transformer Filters Input Harmonic Filters

17 17 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Rectifiers Rectifiers can be programmed to sequentially ramp up IGBT Rectifier – Clean Input High power sinusoidal rectification – low harmonics, limited need for filters SCR Rectifiers 6 Pulse – ~30% THD without filters – 7% with 5 th Harmonic Filter <5% with 5 th and 11 th filter 12 Pulse – reduces harmonics by using parallel rectifiers with a phase shift ahead of one rectifier – requires input transformer Lower efficiency than 6 Pulse

18 18 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 6 Pulse Current Input THD without filter THD with filter

19 19 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 12 Pulse Rectifiers

20 20 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 750 kVA - 6P vs 12P Rectifier – Energy Efficiency Percentage load 6-Pulse - no Xfrmr 12-Pulse w/xfrmr 25%92.8 %91.8 % 50%94.2 %93.3 % 75%94.2 %93.2 % 100%93.6 %92.4 % Efficiency Difference 1.0 % 0.9 % 1.0 % 1.2 %

21 21 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Inverters Converts DC power into AC using IGBTs and PWM Several different methods to implement PWM

22 22 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Static Switch Modules Static Switch Module consists of breaker or contactor in series with back to back SCRs. Static Switch modules can be continuous duty or momentary rated. Momentary rated Modules have a breaker or contactor in parallel. Continuous duty is required for ECO mode operation.

23 23 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Input Isolation Transformer Input Isolation Transformer – required for 12 Pulse Rectifier

24 24 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Output Transformer - Isolates load from inverter - Provides greater protection to load during inverter failure - Transformer MTBF > IGBT MTBF UPS Output Transformer

25 25 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Input Filters 5 th Harmonic Cancellation The filter is designed to cancel the current distortion that is most present on the 5 th harmonic. Power Factor Correction The input filter also raises the input pf to approximately 0.93 with addition of capacitors. This will allow the generator to operate more efficiently delivering more real power

26 26 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Multi-Module UPS Configurations Paralleling UPS Modules Capacity or Redundancy Centralized Bypass Distributed Bypass Typical Parallel UPS Configurations Isolated Redundant Parallel Redundant Distributed Redundant System plus System

27 27 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Parallel for Capacity Multiple units = N Not recommended for a N System (single system) Frequently used for System + System (N+N) MTBF impact Parallel for capacity reduces MTBF value Approximately half the MTBF of a single unit

28 28 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Centralized Bypass

29 29 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Distributed Bypass 29

30 30 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Centralized Bypass Cabinet Distributed Bypass Configuration does not need this gear lineup

31 31 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Parallel UPS Configurations Isolated Redundant Parallel Redundant Distributed Redundant System plus System

32 32 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Isolated Redundant

33 33 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Parallel Redundant

34 34 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Distributed Redundant

35 35 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 System + System

36 36 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Questions?

37 37 / Title or job number / 2/8/2014 Contact Information: Harry Handlin GE Power Quality Systems Engineer P 205-789-7479 E harry.handlin@ge.com


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